### Video Transcript

In this video, we will learn how to
identify different types of angles and use relationships between their measures to
solve problems. There are many different ways of
describing angles. For example, we can describe the
measure of an angle using words such as acute, obtuse, or reflex. And we can also describe the
measure of an angle using a number such as 60 degrees. These are not the only ways of
describing angles however. We can also describe different
relationships angles have with each other. Letβs begin by considering the
following angles.

We can see from the diagram that
the measure of angle π΄π΅π· is equal to the measure of angle π΄π΅πΆ plus the measure
of angle πΆπ΅π·. The two angles π΄π΅πΆ and πΆπ΅π·
are known as adjacent angles, and we can formally define this as follows. Two angles are adjacent if they
share the same vertex, have a common side, and their distinct sides lie on opposite
sides of the common side. In the diagram drawn, our two
angles share the same vertex π΅. They have a common side π΅πΆ. And their distinct sides π΅π· and
π΅π΄ do lie on opposite sides of the common side. We can therefore conclude that
angle π΄π΅πΆ and angle πΆπ΅π· are adjacent angles. We will now look at an example
where we need to identify adjacent angles in a diagram and then add their measures
to find a measure of the combined angle.

Find the sum of the two adjacent
angles from the given angles in the diagram.

We begin by recalling the
definition of adjacent angles. Two angles are adjacent if they
have the same vertex, have a common side, and their distinct sides lie on opposite
sides of the common side. We can see from the diagram that we
have three angles that measure 22, 64, and 88 degrees. All three angles share a common
vertex. However, it is only the angles of
measures 64 degrees and 88 degrees that share a common side. The distinct sides of these two
angles do lie on opposite sides of the common side. We can therefore conclude that 64
degrees and 88 degrees are the adjacent angles. We are asked to find the sum of
these. Since 64 plus 88 is 152, the sum of
the two adjacent angles in the diagram is 152 degrees.

It is worth noting that adding the
measures of the two adjacent angles is equivalent to finding the measure of the
combined angle, that is, the angle between the distinct sides of the adjacent
angles.

Before moving on to our next
example, we will consider two further angle relationships. These are known as complementary
and supplementary angles. Firstly, two angles are
complementary if their measures sum to 90 degrees. In other words, they sum to form a
right angle as shown. In a similar way, two angles are
supplementary if their measures sum to 180 degrees. In this case, the two angles form a
straight line. We will now look at an example
where we need to use the properties of complementary and supplementary angles.

Determine the values of π₯ and
π¦.

We begin by noticing that the two
angles with measures 62 degrees and π₯ degrees form a right angle. This means that they are
complementary angles as complementary angles sum to 90 degrees. We can write this as an
equation. π₯ degrees plus 62 degrees is equal
to 90 degrees. And since all the angles have the
same unit, π₯ plus 62 is equal to 90. We can then subtract 62 from both
sides of the equation. And this means that π₯ is equal to
28.

In order to determine the value of
π¦, we note that all four angles lie on a straight line. The angle of measure π¦ degrees
combines with the angle that is the sum of π₯ degrees, 62 degrees, and 37 degrees to
make a straight angle. In other words, these angles are
supplementary since supplementary angles sum to 180 degrees. We have the equation π¦ degrees
plus π₯ degrees plus 62 degrees plus 37 degrees is equal to 180 degrees. And since π₯ is equal to 28, this
simplifies as shown. Adding 28, 62, and 37 gives us
127. So our equation becomes π¦ plus 127
is equal to 180. We can then subtract 127 from both
sides, giving us π¦ is equal to 53. The values of π₯ and π¦ are 28 and
53, respectively.

Letβs now consider two further
angle relationships. Firstly, letβs consider angles
around a point. The diagram drawn shows two
adjacent straight angles. And since straight angles measure
180 degrees, the angles around a point must sum to 360 degrees. It is important to note that this
is true of any set of angles at a point even if they donβt include straight
angles. Angles on the opposite side of the
intersection of two straight lines are called vertically opposite angles. Vertically opposite angles are
equal in measure. In the diagram drawn, angle π is
equal to angle π. And angle π is equal to angle
π.

It is also worth noting that angles
π and π are supplementary angles. They sum to 180 degrees. The same is true of angles π and
π, angles π and π, and angles π and π. We also note that all four angles
π, π, π, and π sum to 360 degrees. We will now consider an example
where we need to use these properties.

What is the measure of angle π
ππ
in the following figure?

In this question, we need to
calculate the measure of angle π
ππ as shown in the diagram. To do this, we will recall a number
of angle properties and relationships. Firstly, we note that ππ is a
straight line, and we recall that angles on a straight line sum to 180 degrees. This means that the measure of
angle πππ plus the measure of angle πππ must equal 180 degrees. From the diagram, we see that angle
πππ measures 146 degrees. And subtracting this from both
sides of our equation, we have the measure of angle πππ is 34 degrees.

Next, we recall that vertically
opposite angles are equal. This means that the measure of
angle πππ must be equal to the measure of angle πππ. And we already know this is equal
to 34 degrees. We now have the measures of four of
the five angles on the diagram. We will therefore use one final
property. Angles at a point sum to 360
degrees. The four known angles sum to 304
degrees. And this means that the measure of
angle π
ππ plus 304 degrees is equal to 360 degrees. Subtracting 304 degrees from both
sides, we have the measure of angle π
ππ is equal to 56 degrees. And this is the final answer to
this question.

We will now consider one final
relationship between angles. The ray that splits an angle into
two angles of equal measure is called the angle bisector. If we consider the angle π΄π΅πΆ as
shown, then the line π·π΅ is known as the angle bisector if the measure of angle
π΄π΅π· is equal to the measure of angle πΆπ΅π·. We will now consider one final
example where we need to use this property.

In the following figure, find the
measure of angle π·ππΈ.

We begin by recalling that the sum
of the measures of the angles at a point is 360 degrees. And it is also important to note
that we cannot assume that the line from point πΆ to point πΈ is a straight
line. So we can therefore not use the
properties of supplementary angles. This means that the five angles in
our diagram sum to 360 degrees. We can write this as an equation as
shown. The measure of angle π·ππΈ plus
the measure of angle π΄ππΈ plus 119 degrees plus 76 degrees plus 41 degrees is
equal to 360 degrees. Summing the three known angles
gives us 236 degrees, and we can therefore simplify our equation. We can then subtract 236 degrees
from both sides such that the measure of angle π·ππΈ plus the measure of angle
π΄ππΈ is equal to 124 degrees.

At this stage, it may not be clear
what to do next. However, letβs consider how the two
unknown angles are labeled on the diagram. This notation tells us that the two
angles are equal. The line ππΈ is an angle bisector
such that the measure of angle π·ππΈ is equal to the measure of angle π΄ππΈ. Since the two angles are equal, we
can rewrite our equation as two multiplied by the measure of angle π·ππΈ is equal
to 124 degrees. And dividing through by two, the
measure of angle π·ππΈ is equal to 62 degrees. As this also means that angle
π΄ππΈ measures 62 degrees, we could add these to our diagram and then check that
all five angles sum to 360 degrees.

We will now finish this video by
recapping the key points. We saw at the start of this video
that two angles are adjacent if they share the same vertex, have a common side, and
their distinct sides lie on opposite sides of the common side. We add the measures of adjacent
angles to find the measure of the combined angle. We saw that complementary angles
sum to 90 degrees. Supplementary angles sum to 180
degrees. And angles at a point or in a full
turn sum to 360 degrees. We saw that angles on the opposite
side of the intersection of two straight lines are called vertically opposite angles
and that vertically opposite angles are equal in measure. Finally, we saw that the ray that
splits an angle into two angles of equal measure is called the angle bisector.