Question Video: Identifying the Part of a Distillation Column with the Highest Temperature | Nagwa Question Video: Identifying the Part of a Distillation Column with the Highest Temperature | Nagwa

Question Video: Identifying the Part of a Distillation Column with the Highest Temperature Science • First Year of Preparatory School

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Scientists and engineers use an oil distillation column to separate the different components of crude oil. They use the column to separate liquids, like kerosene, from other liquids, like diesel oil. The figure shows the structure of a fractionating column. Which numbered box represents the part of the column with the highest temperature?

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Video Transcript

Scientists and engineers use an oil distillation column to separate the different components of crude oil. They use the column to separate liquids, like kerosene, from other liquids, like diesel oil. The figure shows the structure of a fractionating column. Which numbered box represents the part of the column with the highest temperature?

Crude oil is made up of many different components, like gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and fuel oil. These components are separated using a fractionating or distilling column. Before the crude oil enters the fractionating column, it first passes through a furnace. The crude oil boils as it passes through the furnace, transforming it from a liquid into a gas. The gas then passes into the fractionating column. The components of the crude oil can then be separated according to their boiling point.

Boiling point is the temperature at which matter begins to change from the liquid to the gas state. The boiling point of a liquid is also the temperature at which the substance in the gas state condenses into the liquid state. The fractionating column is hottest at the bottom and coolest at the top. When a component reaches a height in the column equal to its boiling point, it condenses from a gas into a liquid, which can then be collected.

Of the components shown, fuel oil has the highest boiling point and gasoline has the lowest boiling point. So fuel oil condenses near the bottom of the fractionating column, where the temperature is higher, and gasoline condenses near the top of the column, where the temperature is much lower.

In conclusion, the numbered box that represents the part of the column with the highest temperature is box number one.

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