Question Video: Identifying the Statement That Describes Electronegativity | Nagwa Question Video: Identifying the Statement That Describes Electronegativity | Nagwa

Question Video: Identifying the Statement That Describes Electronegativity Science • Second Year of Preparatory School

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Fill in the blank: Electronegativity can be described as _.

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Video Transcript

Fill in the blank. Electronegativity can be described as blank. (A) How much negative charge is generated by the electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom. (B) How much polarity is focused on the central atom of a covalent molecule. (C) How strongly an atom attracts the electrons from a chemical bond. (D) How strongly an atom forms a hydrogen bond with a nearby water molecule. Or (E) how strongly the nucleus attracts the outer electrons of an atom toward the center.

For this question, we must identify the description of the term “electronegativity.” Let’s clear some space on screen to investigate this term.

In order to discuss electronegativity, we must understand covalent bonds. A covalent bond forms when two nonmetal atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. The shared electrons form the chemical bond between the two atoms. The atoms engaging in covalent bonds are often not the same element. We can use water as an example to look at covalent bonds between different elements. Its chemical formula is H2O. Water molecules have two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in each molecule. In the water molecule, each hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with the oxygen atom.

Each element on the periodic table has its own physical and chemical properties. One of these very important properties is called electronegativity. Electronegativity is the measure of how strongly an atom attracts a pair of electrons from a chemical bond. Oxygen is considered to have a high electronegativity. Hydrogen is less electronegative than oxygen.

Electronegativity varies among the elements of the periodic table. In the water molecule, oxygen is the more electronegative atom. So it attracts the bonding electrons more strongly. The electrons are still shared in the covalent bonds, but they are shared unevenly. This causes the side of the molecule with oxygen pulling the electrons more strongly to be partially negative. This is represented using a 𝛿 minus symbol. This causes the side of the molecule with hydrogen atoms to be partially positive. This is represented using 𝛿 plus symbols. In the water molecule, we can see how electronegativity is an important property of the atoms and how it affects the chemical bonds.

Let’s have another look at our answer choices. We can see that answer choice (C) describes electronegativity. So we can now fill in the blank. Electronegativity can be described as how strongly an atom attracts the electrons from a chemical bond.

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