Question Video: Understanding How Ammonia Molecules Bond Boron Trifluoride Molecules | Nagwa Question Video: Understanding How Ammonia Molecules Bond Boron Trifluoride Molecules | Nagwa

Question Video: Understanding How Ammonia Molecules Bond Boron Trifluoride Molecules Chemistry • Second Year of Secondary School

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The reaction between ammonia and boron trifluoride is shown below. What type of bond is formed between ammonia and boron trifluoride? [A] Ionic bond [B] Covalent bond [C] Metallic bond [D] Hydrogen bond [E] Coordinate covalent bond.

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Video Transcript

The reaction between ammonia and boron trifluoride is shown below. What type of bond is formed between ammonia and boron trifluoride? (A) Ionic bond, (B) covalent bond, (C) metallic bond, (D) hydrogen bond, (E) coordinate covalent bond.

This question is asking us to identify the type of bond formed between ammonia and boron trifluoride when they react, which is this bond, the one between the nitrogen and boron atoms in ammonia boron trifluoride.

Nitrogen and boron are both nonmetallic elements. Knowing this can help us eliminate some of our options. Right off the bat, we can eliminate answer choice (C) metallic bond, as metallic bonds only involve metals. This type of bonding is found in sodium metal, silver metal, and iron metal.

We can also eliminate answer choice (D) hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bonding occurs between atoms of hydrogen and atoms of a very electronegative element such as nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Hydrogen bonds occur between neighboring molecules. The hydrogen of one molecule is attracted to the lone pair on the highly electronegative atom of the other molecule. This obviously doesn’t describe the type of bond between nitrogen and boron.

We can also eliminate answer choice (A). Ionic bonding typically occurs between metals and nonmetals. This type of bonding is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. For example, we see this in the compound sodium chloride.

So now we’re left with two answer options: covalent bond and coordinate covalent bond. What’s the difference between these types of bonds? Both covalent bonds and coordinate covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two nonmetal atoms. Technically, coordinate covalent bonds are a special type of covalent bonds, but we typically use these two different terms to refer to two different ways that electrons can be shared.

When a regular covalent bond is formed, each atom participating in the bond donates one electron. When a coordinate covalent bond is formed, one atom donates both electrons that make up the bond, and the other atom doesn’t donate any electrons. Often, a coordinate covalent bond is represented like a regular covalent bond in a chemical structure, but we might also see a coordinate covalent bond represented like this. The arrow will point away from the atom that donated the electrons to form the bond.

We can see that this symbol matches the one between nitrogen and boron in ammonia boron trifluoride. So this is likely a coordinate covalent bond, but we can confirm our answer by looking at the Lewis structures for the reactants, we can see that there is a lone pair on the nitrogen atom. We can also see that boron has no extra electrons to form bonds with. This means both of the electrons that make up the bond between nitrogen and boron in ammonia boron trifluoride were donated by the nitrogen atom. Since nitrogen donated both electrons to form the bond and boron donated none, so this type of bond is definitely a coordinate covalent bond.

The type of bond formed between ammonia and boron trifluoride is answer choice (E) a coordinate covalent bond.

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