Question Video: Determining the Correct Statements Concerning Genes and the Human Genome | Nagwa Question Video: Determining the Correct Statements Concerning Genes and the Human Genome | Nagwa

Question Video: Determining the Correct Statements Concerning Genes and the Human Genome Biology • Third Year of Secondary School

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Which of the following statements is not true? [A] Genes contain the information needed to produce proteins and other functional units within a cell. [B] Mapping a person’s genome can help determine which genetic diseases the person might carry. [C] A person’s genome consists of all of the genetic material within each of the person’s cells. [D] By studying the human genome, we can identify and prevent all transmissible diseases from spreading.

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Video Transcript

Which of the following statements is not true? (A) Genes contain the information needed to produce proteins and other functional units within a cell. (B) Mapping a person’s genome can help determine which genetic diseases the person might carry. (C) A person’s genome consists of all of the genetic material within each of the person’s cells. Or (D) by studying the human genome, we can identify and prevent all transmissible diseases from spreading.

Here we see four statements regarding genes and the human genome. So let’s start by defining these concepts. A gene is a section of DNA that gives instructions for a certain function. For example, a gene can be expressed as a protein. The human genome is all of the genetic material in a human cell. This includes every gene and all of the noncoding sections of DNA. This genetic material gives the basic instructions for how to live, grow, and express individual traits, such as eye color and height.

Now, let’s discuss the answers to determine which statement is incorrect. As we have just discussed, genes contain the information needed to produce proteins and other functional units within a cell, so answer (A) can be eliminated.

Now, let’s discuss answer (C). It is true that a person’s genome consists of all of the genetic material within each of the person’s cells. The vast majority of this genetic material is found in the form of highly compacted DNA organized into chromosomes in the nucleus. So option (C) is true.

The study of the human genome is an area of great interest to the scientific community. DNA can be sequenced, or mapped. This tells us the order of nucleotide bases in a length of DNA. The more we understand about the molecular template for life, the better we can get at creating effective medicines and treating genetic diseases. So it is true that mapping a person’s genome can help determine which genetic diseases the person might carry. Therefore, we can eliminate answer (B).

While sequencing is an extremely powerful tool, it will not be helpful for identifying and preventing transmissible diseases. These are diseases that a person develops as a result of exposure to a pathogen. For example, malaria is caused by a parasite and transmitted by mosquitoes. Because the exposure to and contraction of this disease does not involve a person’s genetic material, studying the human genome cannot identify and prevent all transmissible diseases from spreading. So answer (D) is the untrue statement. By studying the human genome, we can identify and prevent all transmissible diseases from spreading.

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