Question Video: Identifying the Variable Region of an Antibody | Nagwa Question Video: Identifying the Variable Region of an Antibody | Nagwa

Question Video: Identifying the Variable Region of an Antibody Biology • Third Year of Secondary School

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The diagram provided shows the basic structure of an antibody. Which label indicates the variable region of an antibody?

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Video Transcript

The diagram provided shows the basic structure of an antibody. Which label indicates the variable region of an antibody?

To answer this question, let’s recall the different structures of an antibody. All antibodies are composed of two heavy chains and two light chains. These chains are connected by disulfide bridges, two of which on this diagram have been labeled with a Z. You might remember that antibodies are very specific to the antigens that they recognize, which means that an antibody can only bind to one specific antigen and that an antigen is simply any molecule or substance that can trigger an immune response, for example, structures found on the outer coat of a pathogen.

Antibodies are created in response to these very specific antigen structures. To recognize their respective pathogens by the antigens they present, antibodies contain two specific antigen binding sites, one on each of the tips of their Y shape. Antibodies have a constant region, which is the same for all antibodies and here has been labeled with a Y. Each antibody also has a variable region, which is highly specific to a particular antigen. On this diagram, the variable region has been labeled with an X.

Therefore, the correct answer to our question “Which label indicates the variable region of an antibody?” is label X.

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