### Video Transcript

In this video weβre gonna to look at the law of cosines. Weβre then gonna look at how can be
applied to non-right-angled triangles to find out the length of missing sides or angles. So
letβs start off with a non-right-angled triangle π΄π΅πΆ.

Now we labelled the vertices capital π΄, capital π΅, and capital πΆ, and we label the
opposite side to those vertices with lowercase π, lowercase π, and lowercase π. Now there
are two different ways of arranging the law of cosines: oneβs best if youβre trying to find a
missing side, and oneβs best if youβre trying to find a missing angle.

And hereβs the arrangement thatβs best for finding the length of a missing side. Now it
tells us that the length of this side squared is equal to the length of this side squared plus
the length of this side squared minus two times the length of this side times the length of
this side times the cosine of this angle here.

So when we know the length of two adjacent sides and the measure of the angle between them,
the enclosed angle, then we can easily work out the length of the opposite side to that angle.
And the other version of the law of cosines helps us to find the measure of an angle when we
know the length of all three sides.

Now this second version here is just a direct rearrangement of this version here. If I add
two ππ cos π΄ to both sides, Iβve got π squared plus two ππ cos π΄ on the left and negative
two ππ cos π΄ plus two ππ cos π΄ makes nothing, so Iβm just left with π squared plus π
squared on the right-hand side.

Now if I take away π squared from both sides, that leaves me with two ππ cos π΄ is equal
to π squared plus π squared minus π squared. Then dividing both sides by two ππ gives us
this formula here. So you either need to memorize both of these versions or you need to be
able to remember one of them and know how to rearrange it into the other format.

The first version then is used to calculate the length of a third side when you know the
length of the other two sides and the angle in between them, and the second version is used to
find the measure of an angle when you know the length of all three sides. Now letβs apply
these techniques to a few different problems.

π΄π΅πΆ is a triangle where π equals 12 centimeters, π equals 20 centimeters, and π equals
26 centimeters. Find the measure of the smallest angle in triangle π΄π΅πΆ giving your answer
to the nearest second.

Now in this question, weβre given the lengths of all three sides and weβre asked to find the
measure of one of the angles, so this is the perfect situation to use the law of cosines. Now
Iβd recommend with all these questions that you do a quick sketch of the problem, doesnβt have
to be 100 percent accurate, but it needs to represent the problem; it just makes it easier to
visualise what weβre going to do.

So hereβs our sketch and remember that this is side π, opposite angle π΄, this is side π,
opposite angle π΅, and this is side π, opposite angle πΆ. And weβve been asked to find the
measure of the smallest angle. And in triangles, the smallest angle is always opposite the
smallest side, and the largest angle is always opposite the largest side, so weβre looking for
angle π΄. The smallest side is side π, 12 centimeters, so the smallest angle is gonna be
angle π΄.

So in order to find the measure of this angle here, weβre going to use this version of the
formula: cosine of angle π΄ is equal to π squared plus π squared minus π squared all over
two ππ. Now letβs take the information from the diagram and substitute the values for π,
π, and π that we already know. And this tells us that the cosine of angle π΄ is equal to 20
squared plus 26 squared minus 12 squared all over two times 20 times 26.

And with a bit of work on our calculator, that simplifies to 233 over 260. And if cosine of
angle π΄ is equal to 233 over 260, then angle π΄ is equal to the inverse cosine of 233 over
260. And that turns out to be 26.342975 etc. etc. degrees. But the question asked us to give
our answer to the nearest second, so weβve gotta convert from decimal degrees into degrees,
minutes, and seconds.

So Iβve got 26 whole degrees plus 0.342975 and so on degrees. And remember, a minute is one
sixtieth of a degree. So if I take this decimal and multiply it by 60, we can see that it
represents 20.5785 and so on minutes. And that tells us weβve got 20 whole minutes plus 0.5785
and so on minutes. And remember that there are 60 seconds in a minute. So if I multiply that
0.5785 and so on by 60, and when I do that, 0.5785 and so on minutes is 34.711 and so on
seconds.

So my angle is 26 degrees 20 minutes and 34.711 and so on seconds. But I was asked to give
my answer to the nearest second, so I need to round 34.711 and so on to the nearest whole
number. So the answer is that the measure of the smallest angle in this triangle is 26
degrees, 20 minutes, and 35 seconds to the nearest second.

So just to summarize our approach there, we were given all three side lengths in this
question, and we had to find the measure of an angle, so we knew that this version of the law
of cosines formula was gonna help us to answer the question. We did a quick diagram, and then
it was just a matter of substituting in the relevant values for π, π, and π and evaluating
that in order to give our final answer.

Now π΄π΅πΆ is a triangle where π΅πΆ is equal to 25 centimeters, π΄πΆ is 13 centimeters, and
the measure of angle πΆ is 142 degrees. Find the length π΄π΅ giving your answer to three
decimal places.

As we said before, itβs always good to do a quick sketch diagram in order to help you gather
your thoughts on what youβve got to do. And when we look at this, weβve been given the length
of this side, the length of this side, and the size of the measure of their enclosed angle
here. And weβve been asked to find the length of this side over here. Now this situation is a
classic case for using this version of the law of cosines, or cosine formula. But wait! Weβre
trying to work out the length of side π, and we were given the length of side π and the
length of side π and the measure of angle πΆ.

The letters donβt quite match. Weβre gonna have to look at the pattern in the formula. π
and π are the adjacent sides, and π΄ is the enclosed angle. But in our problem, π and π are
the adjacent sides, and πΆ is the enclosed angle. So we can replace them correspondingly in
our formula: π squared plus π squared, the two adjacent sides, minus two times π times π
times cos πΆ, the enclosed angle, is equal to the square of the side that weβre looking for.

Now we can substitute in the values that weβve got in the question. So that means length
π΄π΅ all squared is equal to 25 squared plus 13 squared minus two times 25 times 13 times cos
142. And just before we go on, Iβll just draw your attention to this term here. Weβre taking
away two times 25 times 13 times cos 142. Now the multiplication signs between all of those
mean that they go together. I would strongly recommend putting parentheses or brackets around
those terms just to make sure that everybody knows that theyβre all one term. And when I put
that into my calculator, Iβve got that length π΄π΅ squared is equal to 1306.20699 and so on.
But of course I donβt want the length π΄π΅ squared, I just want the length π΄π΅. So I need to
take square roots of both sides, and that tells me that length π΄π΅ is 36.141485 and so on.

Now looking back at the question, it wants us to give our answer to three decimal places, so
I need to do some rounding. And not forgetting units, all the measurements were in centimeters
that we had, so the answer π΄π΅ is 36.141 centimeters to three decimal places of accuracy.

Now just to summarize our approach here, this pattern here where we were given two sides,
two adjacent sides of the triangle, we were given those lengths and the measure of the
enclosed angle, and we needed to find the length of the side opposite that. That told us it
was the law of cosines. We had to rearrange that a bit, and then we could just substitute in
the values that we were given in the question and then round to the appropriate level of
accuracy at the end.

Now π΄π΅πΆ is a triangle where π equals 18 centimeters, π equals 10 centimeters, and the
measure of angle πΆ is 76 degrees. Find the measure of angle π΄ giving your answer to one
decimal place.

Well again letβs start off by doing a quick sketch diagram. So thatβs triangle π΄π΅πΆ with
side π is equal to 18 centimeters, side π is equal to 10 centimeters, and the measure of
angle πΆ is 76 degrees. And weβve been asked to find the measure of angle π΄ to one decimal
place. When we think about this, weβve been given the length of two adjacent sides and the
measure of the enclosed angle, which is screaming at us law of cosines.

But what that would enable us to do is to work out the length of side π down here. Thatβs
not the measure of angle π΄. But if we knew the length of side π, weβd know the length of all
of the sides of this triangle and weβd know the measure of one of the angles, so we could then
use the law of sines to work out the measure of angle π΄.

So thatβs what weβre gonna do. Now recall, the law of cosines in this particular format tell
us that π squared is equal to π squared plus π squared minus two ππ cos π΄. But thatβs
when π and π are the adjacent sides and π΄ is the enclosed angle. But weβve got sides π and
π as the adjacent sides and πΆ as the enclosed angle.

So substituting in that pattern, weβve got side π squared is equal to side π squared plus
side π squared minus two times the length of side π times the length of side π times the
cosine of angle πΆ. And we can simply substitute in the values weβve got for π and π and
angle πΆ, and we can see that side π squared is equal to 18 squared plus 10 squared minus two
times 18 times 10 times the cosine of angle 76 degrees.

And remember itβs a good idea to always bracket those together. And when we tap that all
into our calculator, we find that π squared is equal to 336.90811 and so on. Then taking
square roots of both sides tells us that the length π is 18.355057 and so on centimetres. So
letβs make a note of that back on our diagram, and then we can see that weβre looking for
angle π΄, and we know the side opposite of that is 18 centimeters. We know side π, and we
know angle πΆ, so this is telling us that the law of sines will be useful.

Now hopefully you can remember the two ways of writing out the law of sines: side length π
over sine of angle π΄ equals side length π over sine of angle π΅ equals side length π over
sine of angle πΆ or sine of angle π΄ over side length π equals sine of angle π΅ over side
length π equals sine of Angle πΆ over side length π. Now weβre trying to find angle π΄; we
know side length π; and we know angle πΆ; and we know side length π.

So given that weβre looking for the measure of angle π΄, itβs better that thatβs on the
numerator. So this is the version of the law of sines that weβre going to use. And in fact,
weβre just gonna pick out these two terms. So having written that down, we can now just
substitute in the values that we know from the question. And that tells us that sine of angle
π΄ over 18 is equal to sine of 76 degrees over 18.355057 and so on.

Now weβre trying to solve to find the value of π΄, so if I multiply both sides of my
equation by 18, then the 18s are going to cancel from the left-hand side. And that means that
sine of angle π΄ is equal to 18 times sine of 76 degrees over 18.355057 and so on. Now if sine
of angle π΄ gives us that ratio, inverse sine of that ratio will give us the measure of angle
π΄.

Now hopefully you kept that 18.355057 and so on on your calculator, and you can now use that
so you get a nice accurate answer for this value here. And when you do the tapping in on your
calculator, you get π΄ is equal to 72.08734532 and so on degrees. But of course, we only want
our answer to one decimal place, so we need to round to one decimal place. And that means that
angle π΄ is 72.1 degrees to one decimal place of accuracy.

So in this question, we started off with this pattern of two adjacent side lengths and an
enclosed angle, which enabled us to work out the length of another side using the law of
cosines. And we had to follow that up with the pattern that we saw here; we wanted to know an
angle, but we knew the opposite side length, and then we knew a side and the angle opposite
it, so we were able to use the law of sines to finish off the question.

Now in exams and on longer questions, this need to use a combination of the law of cosines
and the law of sines is actually quite common. Alright then, letβs have a quick final summary
before we go.

With the law of cosines then, if we know the lengths of two adjacent sides and an enclosed
angle, say sides π and π and angle π΄, then we can work out the length of the other side
opposite the angle that we know. Or if we know the lengths of all three sides, then we can
work out the measure of one of the angles. So those patterns give rise to these two different
formulae. And if we know different sides labelled in a different way, weβre able to use those
patterns to rearrange those letters accordingly.