### Video Transcript

Factor π squared minus six ππ plus nine π squared.

Now in this expression, weβve got one π squared β Iβm gonna put that in there β and weβve got nine π squared, and then weβve got this term in the middle which is six times π times π.

Now the fact that the highest power is two and weβve got this particular pattern means that weβre gonna two pairs of parentheses like this that we can multiply together to make up that expression. So in the first parenthesis, weβre gonna have something plus or minus something; and in the second one, weβre gonna have something plus or minus something else.

Now letβs think about this in reverse if I had some parentheses like this and I was going to multiply them together, I would have to multiply this term by this term and this term and this term by this term and this term. Now the fact that Iβve got one π squared means I could put in π here and an π here and when I multiply π by π Iβm gonna π squared.

So Iβm now gonna work out what the other two terms are gonna be. Are they gonna be positive or negative in here? And presumably, theyβre going to involve π. Well Iβve got to generate nine π squared. And given that Iβve got an π here and an π here, the only way I can generate this last term here, nine π squared, is if both of these terms purely involve numbers times π.

So when I do multiply those two terms together Iβm gonna π times π, which is π squared, and something times something, which gives me nine. So letβs think about what the combinations of those could be. So just sticking into whole numbers for now, one times nine is nine, and three times three is nine.

So if I made those terms one π and nine π then they multiply together to make nine π squared; or if I made them three π and three π, they will also multiply together to make nine π squared. But Iβve still got to multiply this term by this term and add it to this term multiplied by this term, so Iβve got combinations of πs and πs to consider.

So letβs just do that part of the calculation, so multiplying π by some πs and then adding some πs multiplied by π.

The first of those two terms π times something times π can be written as something times ππ, and the second one can also be written like that something times ππ rather than something times π times π.

And when I add them together, this something and this something need to add together to make negative six; thatβs the number of ππs that I need to generate at the end of this. Well that gives us a problem because so far the options weβve got are positive one and positive nine or positive three and positive three for those two somethings. Neither of those two pairs added together is gonna generate negative six. So letβs think about what other numbers multiply together to make positive nine.

Well negative one times negative nine makes positive nine, or negative three times negative three makes positive nine. Now which pair of those somethings add together to make negative six? Well itβs negative three and negative three.

So this thing here in front of the π is negative three; and this thing here in front of this π is also negative three. So letβs tidy up and make a bit of space.

The factored form of that expression is π minus three π times π minus three π. Well letβs just check our answer. π times π is π squared; π times negative three π is negative three ππ; negative three π times π is negative three ππ β but it doesnβt matter if we swap those two round, thatβs the same as negative three ππ, so Iβm going to write that that way round β and negative three π times negative three π is positive nine π squared.

Now in the middle, weβve got negative three ππ take away another three ππ, so thatβs negative six ππ. So when we checked it we do in fact get the same expression that we started off with.

So this is our answer. But youβll notice that both of the expressions in each of the parenthesis are the same, so weβve got π minus three π times π minus three π. Thatβs π minus three π all squared, so the most efficient form to write our answer is just that: π minus three π all squared.