### Video Transcript

In this video, we will learn how to
identify the parts of pyramids and cones and use the Pythagorean theorem to find
their dimensions.

Recall that the Pythagorean theorem
states that the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of
the squares of the other two sides. The Pythagorean theorem can be
applied to three-dimensional problems in a number of ways. One method is to use right
triangles contained within the faces of the three-dimensional object or to take
two-dimensional slices through its interior. To identify such triangles, we need
to be familiar with the parts and properties of some common three-dimensional
objects, such as pyramids and cones, for example, the regular square pyramid.

The perpendicular height of the
pyramid is the perpendicular distance between the apex of the pyramid and its
base. And its line is therefore
perpendicular to any straight line contained in the pyramidβs base that intersects
it. The lateral edge of the pyramid is
the edge connecting its apex to one of its other vertices that make up the base. The slant height of a pyramid is
the perpendicular distance from one of the sides of the base to the apex of the
pyramid.

A right circular cone is similar to
a pyramid, but its base is circular. The main lengths in a cone are the
slant height, the perpendicular height, and the base radius of the cone. These three lengths form a right
triangle, as shown in the diagram.

In this video, we will look at
examples of how we can apply the Pythagorean theorem to right angles within 3D
shapes, including pyramids and cones, to calculate unknown lengths. Letβs look at an example of finding
an unknown length within a cube.

Given that π΄π΅πΆπ·πΈπΉπΊπ» is a
cube whose edge length is six root two centimeters and π is the midpoint of the
line segment π΄π΅, find the area of the rectangle π·πππΈ.

The area of a rectangle is equal to
the product of its side lengths. In this case, the side lengths of
the rectangle π·πππΈ are π·π and ππ. We are given by the question that
the side length of the cube is six root two centimeters. The line ππ is parallel to an
edge of the cube and extends between two other edges. Therefore, it must also be of
length six root two.

To find the length of π·π,
consider the top-down view of the base of the cube. The shaded triangle is a right
triangle, since the internal angles of the face of a cube, like π·π΄π, are 90
degrees. The side π΄π· is an edge of the
cube, so its length is six root two. Since π is the midpoint of an edge
of the cube, the side π΄π is half the edge length, three root two.

π·π is the hypotenuse of this
right triangle. So the length of the side π·π can
therefore be found from the Pythagorean theorem, which states that the square of the
hypotenuse of a right triangle, π, is equal to the sum of the squares of the other
two sides, π and π. In this case, therefore, π·π
squared is equal to π΄π· squared plus π΄π squared. π΄π· is equal to six root two, and
π΄π is equal to three root two. So π·π squared is equal to six
root two all squared plus three root two all squared. Six root two all squared is equal
to 36 times two, which is 72. And three root two all squared is
equal to nine times two, which is 18. And adding these together gives us
90.

Therefore, the length of π·π is
equal to square root of 90, which can be simplified to three root 10. The area of the rectangle π·πππΈ
is therefore equal to π·π times ππ, which is three root 10 times six root
two. Collecting surds, we get three
times six, which is 18, and the square root of 10 times two, which is root 20. And this simplifies to give us the
area of π·πππΈ, 36 root five, and the unit is centimeters squared.

Letβs now look at an example where
we calculate the height of a pyramid whose base is an equilateral triangle.

ππ΄π΅πΆ is a regular pyramid whose
base π΄π΅πΆ is an equilateral triangle whose side length is 32 centimeters. If the length of its lateral edge
is 88 centimeters, find the height of the pyramid to the nearest hundredth.

Letβs begin by sketching the
pyramid. The pyramid has an equilateral
triangular base. So the three sides π΄π΅, π΅πΆ, and
π΄πΆ have the same length of 32 centimeters. Itβs also a regular pyramid, so the
lateral edges also have the same length of 88 centimeters.

By the symmetry of the sides, the
height of the pyramid is given by the length of the line ππ, where π is the
centroid of the triangular base. This line is vertical. So it is perpendicular to any line
contained within the base of the triangle, such as the line π΄π. The triangle π΄ππ is therefore a
right triangle. So by the Pythagorean theorem, the
square of the hypotenuse of this right triangle, π΄π, is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides, π΄π and ππ.

ππ squared is the square of the
height of the pyramid, the quantity we wish to find. So weβll rearrange this equation
for ππ. We can do this by subtracting π΄π
squared from both sides and taking the square root, giving us ππ equals the square
root of π΄π squared minus π΄π squared. π΄π is the lateral edge of the
pyramid, which we are given in the question, 88 centimeters. π΄π is currently unknown, so we
will need to find it from the equilateral triangular base.

The base π΄π΅πΆ is an equilateral
triangle with a centroid at the point π. If we continue the line π΄π to the
other side of the triangle, it intercepts the line π΅πΆ at its midpoint, π. A median passing from the vertex of
a triangle through its centroid is divided into a ratio of two to one. So π΄π is twice the length of
ππ. This also means that π΄π is
two-thirds the length of the complete line π΄π.

This subtriangle π΄π΅π is a right
triangle. The hypotenuse π΄π΅ is the side
length of the base, 32 centimeters. And the side π΅π is half the side
length of the base, 16 centimeters. We can apply the Pythagorean
theorem again to this right triangle. The square of the hypotenuse, π΄π΅,
is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, π΄π and π΅π. We can rearrange for π΄π by
subtracting π΅π squared from both sides and taking the square root, giving π΄π
equals the square root of π΄π΅ squared minus π΅π squared.

Since π΄π is equal to two-thirds
π΄π, π΄π is equal to two-thirds times the square root of π΄π΅ squared minus π΅π
squared. Taking the square finally gives us
π΄π squared, which is equal to four-ninths times π΄π΅ squared minus π΄π
squared.

We can now express the height of
the pyramid, ππ, entirely in known quantities. ππ is equal to the square root of
π΄π squared minus four-ninths π΄π΅ squared minus π΅π squared. π΄π is the lateral edge of the
pyramid, equal to 88 centimeters. π΄π΅ is the side length of the
base, equal to 32 centimeters. And π΅π is half the side length of
the base, equal to 16 centimeters. Therefore, ππ is equal to the
square root of 88 squared minus four-ninths times 32 squared minus 16 squared. Performing this calculation gives
us the height of the pyramid, 86.04 centimeters, to the nearest hundredth.

In the next example, we will use
the net of a pyramid to calculate its vertical height and slant height.

Consider the net of the square
pyramid with the shown dimensions. Find, to the nearest hundredth, the
pyramidβs height. And find, to the nearest hundredth,
the pyramidβs slant height.

Letβs begin by sketching the
constructed pyramid in 3D. We can label the four base vertices
π΄, π΅, πΆ, and π· and the top vertex πΈ. From the net, the side length of
the square base is five centimeters and the lateral edge of the pyramid is four
centimeters. We can draw a vertical line from
the vertex πΈ to the base of the pyramid. The line meets the base of the
pyramid at its centroid π. And its length is the height of the
pyramid.

This line is perpendicular to any
line contained within the base, such as the line π΄π. So it forms a right triangle
π΄ππΈ. Therefore, by the Pythagorean
theorem, the square of the hypotenuse of this triangle, π΄πΈ, is equal to the sum of
the squares of the other two sides, ππΈ and π΄π. Rearranging for the height, ππΈ,
by subtracting π΄π squared and taking the square root, we get ππΈ equals the
square root of π΄πΈ squared minus π΄π squared. π΄πΈ is the slant height of the
pyramid, which is four centimeters. π΄π is currently unknown.

To find the length of π΄π,
consider the top-down view of the base of the pyramid. The center of the base, π, is the
midpoint of the diagonal of the square, π΄πΆ. The triangle π΄π΅πΆ is a right
triangle. Therefore, by the Pythagorean
theorem, the square of the hypotenuse of this triangle, π΄πΆ, is equal to the sum of
the squares of the other two sides, π΄π΅ and π΅πΆ.

π΄πΆ is twice the length of π΄π,
so the left-hand side could be rewritten as two π΄π all squared. Also, since the base is a square,
π΄π΅ is equal to π΅πΆ, so the right-hand side is equal to two π΄π΅ squared. The left-hand side has a factor of
four, and the right-hand side has a factor of two. Dividing both sides by four,
therefore, gives us π΄π squared equals one-half π΄π΅ squared.

Therefore, we can express the
height of the pyramid entirely with known quantities. ππΈ is equal to square root of
π΄πΈ squared minus half π΄π΅ squared. π΄πΈ is the lateral edge of the
pyramid, four centimeters, and π΄π΅ is the side length of the base, five
centimeters. Therefore, ππΈ is equal to the
square root of four squared minus one-half times five squared. Performing this calculation gives
us the height of the pyramid, 1.87 centimeters to the nearest hundredth.

For the second part of the
question, letβs clear some space and redraw the pyramid. The slant height of the pyramid is
the length of the line from the top vertex, πΈ, to the midpoint of one of its base
edges, say, π΅πΆ. As before, we can draw a vertical
line from the vertex πΈ to the point π, the centroid of the base. The angle between this line and the
line ππ is a right angle. So the triangle πππΈ is a right
triangle.

We can therefore once again use the
Pythagorean theorem to find the slant height, ππΈ. This is the hypotenuse of the right
triangle πππΈ. So its square is equal to the sum
of the squares of the other two sides, ππ and ππΈ. ππΈ is already known from the
previous part of the question. So we just need to find ππ. π is the center of the base, and
ππ is parallel to the edge π΄π΅. Therefore, ππ is half the length
of the edge, which is five over two centimeters.

Taking the square root of the above
equation gives us the slant height explicitly. ππΈ equals the square root of ππ
squared plus ππΈ squared. ππ squared is equal to five over
two all squared, and ππΈ is equal to the square root of four squared minus one-half
times five squared. So ππΈ squared is just four
squared minus one-half times five squared. Performing this calculation gives
us ππΈ, the slant height of the pyramid, 3.12 centimeters to the nearest
hundredth.

In the final example, we will
calculate the circumference and base area of a right circular cone by finding its
radius.

A right circular cone has height 90
centimeters and slant height 106 centimeters. Find the circumference and area of
the base in terms of π.

Letβs start by sketching the
cone. The height is 90 centimeters, the
slant height is 106 centimeters, and the radius of the base, π, is unknown. The base is circular. And recall that the circumference
of a circle is equal to two π times the radius π. And the area of a circle is given
by π times the radius π squared.

The perpendicular height, the slant
height, and the radius form a right triangle. Therefore, we can use the
Pythagorean theorem, which states that the square of the hypotenuse of this right
triangle, the slant height π , is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two
sides, the radius π and the height β.

Rearranging for π by subtracting β
squared from both sides and taking the square root gives us the radius, π, equal to
the square root of π squared minus β squared. The circumference of the circle is
equal to two π times π, which is therefore equal to two π times the square root
of 106 squared minus 90 squared. Performing this calculation gives
us the circumference of the base, 112π centimeters, which we can leave in this form
as the question tells us. And the area of the base is equal
to π times π squared, which is π times 106 squared minus 90 squared. Performing this calculation gives
us the area of the base of the cone, 3136π centimeters squared, which again we
leave in terms of π.

Letβs finish this video by
recapping some key points. The Pythagorean theorem states that
the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle, π, is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides, π and π. This theorem can be applied to
three-dimensional shapes, such as cubes, pyramids, and cones, by constructing
two-dimensional slices through them to make right triangles, where two of the sides
are known so the third may be found from the Pythagorean theorem.

The perpendicular height of a
regular pyramid is perpendicular to any straight line passing through the center of
its base and lying on this base. And hence, a right triangle can be
formed with the lateral edge. The slant height of a regular
pyramid is the perpendicular distance from any side of the base to the pyramidβs
apex. The base radius π, vertical height
β, and slant height π of a cone form a right triangle, with the slant as its
hypotenuse. Therefore, by the Pythagorean
theorem, π squared plus β squared is equal to π squared.