Video: Component Form of Electric Field from Equipotentials

In a region containing an electric field, equipotential surfaces have the potentials of 𝑉 = 100 V for 𝑧 = 0.00 m, 𝑉 = 200 V for 𝑧 = 0.50 m, and 𝑉 = 300 V for 𝑧 = 1.00 m. What is the electric field in this region?

02:25

Video Transcript

In a region containing an electric field, equipotential surfaces have the potentials of 𝑉 equals 100 volts for 𝑧 equals 0.00 meters, 𝑉 equals 200 volts for 𝑧 equals 0.50 meters, and 𝑉 equals 300 volts for 𝑧 equals 1.00 meters. What is the electric field in this region?

We can call the electric field that we want to solve for in this region 𝐸, where 𝐸 is a vector having π‘₯-, 𝑦-, and 𝑧- components. We’re told in the problem statement various potentials corresponding to different values of 𝑧. Let’s start by sketching out the 𝑧-values and the corresponding potentials.

Here, is a three-dimensional plot with π‘₯-, 𝑦- and 𝑧-dimensions marked out. On the 𝑧-axis, we’re told potential values for three different values of 𝑧: at the origin, at 0.50 meters and at 1.00 meters. At those points, we have equipotential surfaces of 100, 200, and 300 volts, respectively. If we consider this progression as a gradient caused by an electric field in the 𝑧-direction, which we can call 𝐸 sub 𝑧, we can see from these points that over a distance of one meter, the electric potential increases by 200 volts. So the electric field along this dimension is 200 volts per meter.

Now what about 𝐸 sub π‘₯ and 𝐸 sub 𝑦? All the data we have indicates that 𝑉, the potential, only changes in the 𝑧-direction. It doesn’t change at all, as far as we know, in the π‘₯ or 𝑦. So 𝐸 π‘₯ and 𝐸 𝑦 are both zero based on the information given.

So what is 𝐸, the electric field that includes all π‘₯-, 𝑦-, and 𝑧- dimensions? The vector 𝐸 equals 𝐸 sub π‘₯, 𝐸 sub 𝑦, 𝐸 sub 𝑧. Since we’ve solved for each of these three components, we can now insert them to write out 𝐸.

The electric field in this region 𝐸 is zero 𝐸 sub π‘₯, zero 𝐸 sub 𝑦, 200 𝐸 sub 𝑧 volts per meter.

Nagwa uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Learn more about our Privacy Policy.