Lesson Plan: The Hubble Time Physics

This lesson plan includes the objectives, prerequisites, and exclusions of the lesson teaching students how to calculate the 𝑧-factor of distant galaxies and how to estimate the age of the universe from the Hubble constant.


Students will be able to

  • use 𝑧≈𝑣𝑐 in all permutations,
  • use 𝑧=Δ𝜆𝜆 in all permutations,
  • use 𝑧≈𝐻𝐷𝑐 in all permutations,
  • use 𝑇=1𝐻 in all permutations,
  • converting between km⋅s−1 Mpc−1 and s−1.


Students should already be familiar with

  • redshift,
  • electromagnetic spectra,
  • parsecs.


Students will not cover

  • the evolution of the universe,
  • the very early universe,
  • inflation,
  • dark matter and dark energy,
  • the cosmological constant,
  • measuring distances to other galaxies,
  • the changing rate of expansion of the universe.

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