Lesson Plan: Kidney Structure Biology

This lesson plan includes the objectives, prerequisites, and exclusions of the lesson teaching students how to describe the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the kidney.


Students will be able to

  • state the function of the kidneys as the removal of waste via urine,
  • describe the macroscopic structure of the kidney in higher vertebrates in terms of cortex, medulla, renal artery, renal vein, and ureter,
  • state the functions of each of the components outlined,
  • describe the structure of the nephron, including the glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, the tubules, loop of Henle, and collecting duct,
  • outline how the nephron allows the blood to be filtered and then some useful products to be selectively reabsorbed,
  • recall that waste products are eventually excreted as urine and outline the route urine takes to be excreted,
  • understand that approximately 14 of the blood in the body will pass through the kidney per day.


Students should already be familiar with

  • the kidneys being major organs in the body,
  • the blood transporting nutrients and waste products.


Students will not cover

  • osmoregulation/the role of ADH,
  • the changes in water potential through a nephron,
  • detailed explanations of selective reabsorption.

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