Lesson Plan: Fertilization and Pregnancy Biology

This lesson plan includes the objectives, prerequisites, and exclusions of the lesson teaching students how to describe the process of fertilization and subsequent embryo development, including an outline of how twins may form.


Students will be able to

  • describe how fertilization occurs,
  • recall the events that occur when a female becomes pregnant,
  • outline the stages of embryonic development,
  • explain the importance of embryonic membranes and the placenta,
  • outline how dizygotic and monozygotic twins can be produced.


Students should already be familiar with

  • the structure and function of the female reproductive system,
  • the structure of male and female gametes,
  • the hormones of the menstrual cycle,
  • gamete fusion and the formation of a diploid zygote,
  • the processes of mitosis and differentiation.


Students will not cover

  • a detailed description of embryo development into organs,
  • ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.

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