Students will be able to
- understand the role of political democracy with regard to public finance,
- understand the definition and characteristics of public expenditure,
- understand the following sources of public revenue: state-owned businesses, public debt, fees, and taxes,
- understand the canons of taxation: equitable, economic, certain, and convenient,
- distinguish between different types of taxes: head tax versus income tax, proportional tax versus progressive tax, and direct tax versus indirect tax,
- understand the definition and characteristics of the public budget and the process of creating and approving the budget in the Egyptian government,
- understand the following trends for the public budget: annuality, comprehensiveness, accuracy, and balance.