A concentration gradient of calcium ions produces a potential of 146 mV across a cell membrane. Calculate, in kilojoules per mole, the minimum energy required by the cell to generate this concentration gradient.
Electrolysis of 1.00 kg of aluminum oxide to produce solid aluminum requires a minimum energy input of kJ. Calculate, in electron volts, the minimum energy required for this reaction per atom of solid aluminum produced.
What is the voltage of a battery that supplies 511 kJ of energy per mole of electrons?