Students will be able to
- use the concept of electronegativity to explain bond polarity and the dipole moments of molecules,
- describe van der Waals forces as a distance-dependent interaction between atoms or molecules,
- describe London dispersion forces and permanent dipole–permanent dipole forces,
- describe hydrogen bonding as a type of permanent dipole–permanent dipole intermolecular interaction,
- describe hydrogen bonding between groups of ammonia or water molecules,
- use the concept of hydrogen bonding to explain the anomalous properties of water and ice,
- explain that ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds are usually stronger than intermolecular forces of attraction.