Lesson: Distribution of Molecular Speeds

In this lesson, we will learn how to calculate the proportion of particles, in an ideal gas, that have a given speed using the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function.

Sample Question Videos

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  • 02:49

Worksheet: Distribution of Molecular Speeds • 6 Questions • 2 Videos

Q1:

An incandescent light bulb is filled with neon gas. The gas that is in close proximity to the element of the bulb is at a temperature of 2 3 0 0 K. Determine the root-mean-square speed of neon atoms in close proximity to the element. Use a value of 20.2 g/mol for the molar mass of neon.

Q2:

Helium atoms in a gas that is at a temperature 𝑇 1 have a root-mean-square speed of 196 m/s. When the gas is heated until it becomes a plasma with a temperature 𝑇 2 , the root-mean-square speed of the helium atoms is 618 km/s. Use a value of 4.003 g/mol for the molar mass of helium.

Find 𝑇 1 .

Find 𝑇 2 .

Q3:

Using the approximation ο„Έ 𝑓 ( 𝑣 ) 𝑣 β‰ˆ 𝑓 ( 𝑣 ) Ξ” 𝑣 𝑣 + Ξ” 𝑣 𝑣 1 1 1 d for small Ξ” 𝑣 , estimate the fraction of nitrogen molecules at a temperature of 3 . 0 0 Γ— 1 0 2 K that have speeds between 290 m/s and 291 m/s. A nitrogen molecule has a mass of 4 . 6 5 Γ— 1 0 βˆ’ 2 6 kg.

Q4:

Find the ratio 𝑓 ο€Ή 𝑣  𝑓 ( 𝑣 ) p r m s for hydrogen gas at a temperature of 77.0 K. Use a molar mass of 2.02 g/mol for hydrogen gas.

Q5:

In a sample of a monatomic gas, a number of molecules 𝑛  have speeds that are within a very small range around the root-mean-square speed of atoms in the gas, 𝑣    . A number of molecules 𝑛  have speeds that are within the same very small range around a speed of 3 . 0 0 β‹… 𝑣    . Determine the ratio of 𝑛  to 𝑛  .

Q6:

A sample of nitrogen is at a temperature of 3 0 1 5 K. 𝑁  has a molar mass of 28.00 g/mol.

What is the most probable speed of the nitrogen molecules?

What is the average speed of the nitrogen molecules?

What is the root-mean-square speed of the nitrogen molecules?

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