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Lesson Flashcards: DNA Replication Biology

Double helix

A twisted-ladder shape, specifically the shape of a molecule of DNA

DNA helicase

The enzyme responsible for separating or unwinding two complementary strands of DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between them, creating the replication fork in preparation for DNA replication

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid molecule that carries the genetic instructions in living things and typically takes the form of a double helix

DNA polymerase

The enzyme that synthesizes a second strand of DNA to convert single-stranded DNA into double-stranded DNA

Complementary base pairing

Specific rules of base pairing, which are critical to DNA replication and transcription, where adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) or uracil (U) in RNA, while guanine (G) binds to cytosine (C)

DNA replication

A process by which two identical DNA molecules are produced from a single original DNA molecule

Lagging strand

The strand of DNA along which the new strand is synthesized discontinuously in fragments in DNA replication

DNA ligase

An enzyme that can join the gaps between the sugar–phosphate backbones of two pieces of DNA by forming a phosphodiester bond

Leading strand

The strand of DNA along which the new strand is synthesized continuously during DNA replication in the same direction as the fork

Replication fork

A structure formed by the two separated or unwound strands of DNA in preparation for DNA replication

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