Lesson Flashcards: The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Biology

Exophthalmic goiter

A specific goiter that can be caused by excessive thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) and is usually accompanied by the bulging of the eyes


A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce insufficient parathyroid hormone

Congenital hypothyroidism

A type of hypothyroidism that is present from birth and can cause problems with physical growth and development

Endocrine gland

A type of gland consisting of a group of specialized cells that secrete hormones directly into the blood

Parathyroid glands

Four pea-sized glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland that produce parathyroid hormone


A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that affects functions like metabolism, growth, and development in the body


A condition in which the thyroid gland produces insufficient thyroid hormones


All chemical reactions that occur within living organisms to maintain life

Graves’ ophthalmopathy

An autoimmune disease of the eye that could be associated with Graves’ disease


The condition brought about by severe hypothyroidism in adults

Pituitary gland

An endocrine gland connected to the brain that regulates many important body functions and controls other endocrine glands

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

A hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that triggers the production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland


A hormone that is produced by the conversion of thyroxine into a more active form

Bone resorption

The process of the breakdown of bone tissue to release calcium into the bloodstream

Parafollicular cells

Cells beside the follicular cells that release calcitonin


A hormone produced by the thyroid gland that is involved in calcium homeostasis

Autoimmune disease

A disease in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissue

Cellular respiration

A process in living organisms through which carbon-containing compounds (e.g., glucose) are broken down to release energy in the form of ATP

Parathyroid hormone

The hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that is involved in calcium homeostasis


Chemical messengers usually transported in the blood or another medium throughout an organism’s body to regulate the activity of cell targets or tissues

Simple goiter

The enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by iodine deficiency


A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excess parathyroid hormone


A condition in which the thyroid gland produces excess thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine)

Thyroid follicles

Structural and functional spherical units that make up the lobules of a thyroid gland and secrete a thyroid hormone circulating in the blood, mainly in the form of thyroxine and small quantities of triiodothyronine


Organs in the body that secrete substances that perform different roles in the body

Thyroid gland

A butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located at the base of the front of the neck that secretes thyroid hormones that control functions like metabolism, growth, and development

Basal metabolic rate

The rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to perform crucial body functions like respiration and circulation

Graves’ disease

An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid, making it produce more thyroid hormones than required

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