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Lesson Flashcards: Absorption and Defecation Biology

Capillaries

Small blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and form networks around the body tissues to exchange gases and other materials

Egestion

The process by which undigested waste is removed from an organism

Ileum

The final section of the small intestine

Buccal digestion

Part of the digestive process that occurs in the mouth and includes mechanical digestion by the teeth and tongue and chemical digestion of carbohydrates by the amylase enzyme in the saliva

Large intestine

An organ of the digestive system between the small intestine and the anus that reabsorbs water and salts from undigested food to form feces

Defecation

The process that occurs when muscular contractions occur in the rectum and a ring of muscles in the anus called the anal sphincter relaxes

Villi

Fingerlike protrusions on the wall of the small intestine that increase its surface area for nutrient absorption

Bolus

A ball of churned food that is mixed with saliva

Accessory organ

An organ that plays a role in digestion but is not part of the digestive tract as food does not pass through it

Feces

The solid undigested food waste matter egested from the large intestine following digestion

Microvilli

Microscopically small protrusions in the cell membrane of the small intestinal wall’s cells that increase the surface area and the efficiency of nutrient absorption

Chemical digestion

The process by which large food molecules are broken down by enzymes into smaller subunits

Excretion

The removal of metabolic waste formed by the cells

Small intestine

An organ of the digestive system between the stomach and the large intestine that is essential for the chemical digestion of nutrients in food and their subsequent absorption

Alimentary canal

A very long tube that food passes through, all the way from the mouth to the anus

Rectum

The final part of the large intestine where feces are stored before being egested from the body

Digestion

The process by which large, complex food molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body

Nutrients

Substances that an organism requires for energy, building materials, and controlling biological processes

Anus

An opening at the end of the large intestine through which solid feces are egested from the body

Sphincter

A ring of muscles that surrounds an opening or closing of a tube, such as the anus at the end of the large intestine

Chyme

The name of the substance that the bolus becomes after it reaches the stomach and mixes with gastric juice

Lacteals

Lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested lipids

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