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Lesson Flashcards: The Adrenal Glands Biology

Aldosterone

A hormone released from the adrenal cortex that helps maintain constant blood pressure and acid–base balance by balancing the salt and water concentrations in the blood

Endocrine gland

A type of gland consisting of a group of specialized cells that secrete hormones directly into the blood

Adrenal medulla

The central region of the adrenal glands responsible for releasing hormones less essential for survival compared to those released from the adrenal cortex, such as those that help the body respond to stress

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

A hormone and neurotransmitter that is secreted from the adrenal glands and primarily functions to increase the heart rate and the force of skeletal muscle contraction

Adrenaline (epinephrine)

A hormone and a neurotransmitter that is secreted from the adrenal glands and prepares the body for activity by increasing the breathing rate, blood circulation, and metabolism of carbohydrates

Adrenal cortex

The outer region of the adrenal glands responsible for releasing vital hormones, such as those that control metabolism

Sympathetic nervous system

The part of the nervous system responsible for the body’s fight-or-flight response when the body is preparing for action

Fight or flight

An automatic physiological response triggered by the sympathetic nervous system that occurs when the body is preparing to escape from or fight through a stressful situation

Adrenal glands (suprarenal glands)

Two small glands located above the kidneys that are responsible for releasing various hormones

Androgens

Sex hormones released from the testes and ovaries, and in small volumes from the adrenal glands, to control the development of male sex organs, secondary sexual characteristics, and arousal in both males and females

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