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Lesson Flashcards: Reproduction in Flowering Plants Biology

Testa (seed coat)

The hard protective outer covering of a dicot seed

Calyx

The sepals of a flower, typically forming a whorl that encloses the petals and forms a protective layer around a young flower in bud

Tube cell nucleus

One of the two nuclei formed by mitosis of a microspore during the formation of a pollen grain that controls growth of the pollen tube

Annual plants

Plants that complete their life cycles in one growing season

Androecium

The male part of a flower, consisting of all the stamens, their filaments, and anthers

Pericarp

The part of a fruit formed from the wall of the ripened ovary

Filament

The part of the male reproductive organ that carries the anther

False fruit

Fruit that is formed from other parts of the plant as well as the ovary, such as the receptacle

Egg cell (ovum)

The female reproductive cell, or gamete

Whorl

A set of organs arranged in successive circular patterns surrounding the stem of an angiosperm flower

Pollination

The process by which pollen grains are transported from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower

Funicle (funiculus)

A structure that is similar to the umbilical cord in humans, as it is a stalk-like structure that connects the developing ovule to the ovary wall

Stigma

An often sticky part of the carpel onto which pollen grains, which contain the male gamete, are deposited in a process called pollination

Pollen tube

A tube that develops from a pollen grain when it is deposited on the stigma of a flower, penetrates the style, and transfers the male gametes to the ovule

Synergid

One of two small short-lived nuclei lying near the egg in the mature embryo sac of an angiosperm

Cross-pollination

The pollination of a flower with pollen from another plant of the same species

Pollinator

Organisms that function to spread pollen ideally from one plant to another

Petals

Modified leaves that are often brightly colored and sometimes scented

Angiosperms

Flowering plants whose ovules are enclosed in an ovary

Triple fusion

The process in which one sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei that are found inside the central cell within the embryo sac

Perennial plants

Plants that live for two years, sometimes known as growing seasons, or more

Carpel

The female reproductive organ consisting of the style, stigma, ovary, and ovules

Double fertilization

A type of fertilization in which one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form an embryo and another sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form endosperm

Polar nuclei

The two nuclei of an angiosperm embryo sac that form endosperm upon fertilization

Embryo sac

The female gametophyte of angiosperms that is situated within the ovule and comprises the egg cell from which the embryo plant develops after fertilization and the endosperm

Dicotyledonous seeds (nonendospermic seeds, exendospermic seeds, or dicot seeds)

Seeds that have two cotyledons

Tepal

An individual modified leaf part in a perianth

Flower

The reproductive structure of flowering plants, consisting of all or some of the reproductive organs (stamen and carpel) and modified leaves (such as the petals and sepals)

Nectar

The nutritious sugary liquid produced by some flowering plants that many pollinators use as their food source

Anther

The part of the male reproductive organ in which pollen grains, which contain the plant’s male gametes, are produced

Cotyledon

A structure that eventually develops into an embryo’s first leaves

Antipodal cells

The three haploid cells in the mature embryo sac of angiosperms found at the end opposite to the micropyle

Perianth (perigonium)

A single outer whorl that contains the leaves of the calyx and corolla when they are very similar

Integuments

The structures that form the outer layer of the ovule

Style

The plant structure within the carpel that connects the stigma to the flower’s ovary

Corolla

The petals of a flower that typically form a whorl within the sepals and enclose the reproductive organs

True fruit

A fruit that develops out of the ovary

Endosperm

A seed tissue that acts as a nutritional food store for the plant embryo to support its development

Pollen

Microscopic grains containing the male gamete of a flowering plant, which can fertilize the female ovule

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