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Lesson Flashcards: Fertilization and Pregnancy Biology


A condition in which an ovum is fertilized by more than one sperm cell

Amniotic fluid

The fluid surrounding the embryo or fetus within the amnion that protects the fetus from trauma and temperature fluctuations


A muscular tube in the female reproductive system that extends from the external genitalia to the cervix

Fallopian tubes (oviducts)

The tubes that an ovum (egg cell) will pass through when traveling from the ovaries to the uterus

Chorionic villi

The extensions from the chorion that associate with the endometrium of the mother’s uterus, forming the placenta

Copulation/sexual intercourse/sex

The biological process in which the male inserts his penis into the female’s vagina

Umbilical cord

The cord containing blood vessels that connects the developing fetus to the placenta


The process by which the fetus and placenta emerge from the uterus through uterine contractions


The process by which an embryo attaches to the endometrium and becomes embedded in it

Corona radiata

The outer layer of cells surrounding the zona pellucida of an egg cell


A temporary organ that supports and nourishes the fetus during its development and secretes hormones required to maintain the pregnancy


The period during which a fetus develops within the mother’s uterus

Egg cell (ovum)

The female reproductive cell, or gamete

Uterus (womb)

A hollow organ in the female’s pelvis in which an embryo can grow and develop

Dizygotic twins (fraternal twins or nonidentical twins)

Twins that develop from two separate zygotes, where two egg cells are fertilized by two separate sperm cells


The early developmental stage of an organism after a zygote has undergone cleavage and before it develops into a fetus


A cap-like organelle that coats the anterior of the head of a sperm cell and contains enzymes capable of digesting the coating of an egg cell

Zona pellucida

The clear glycoprotein layer that surrounds an egg cell


The outermost extraembryonic membrane that surrounds the developing embryo or fetus


The innermost extraembryonic membrane that encloses a developing embryo or fetus

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