Lesson Flashcards: Structure of the Genome

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Definition

Protein

A complex biological macromolecule, made up of amino acid monomers, that can have a wide variety of forms and functions

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Definition

Gene

A section of DNA that contains the information needed to produce a functional unit (e.g., a protein).

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Definition

Genome

All the genetic information contained in the DNA of an organism

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Definition

Prokaryotic cell

A cell that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

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Definition

Eukaryotic cell

A cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

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Definition

Chromosome

A long molecule of DNA and associated proteins that contains a part of the genetic information of an organism in the form of genes

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Definition

Noncoding DNA (ncDNA)

Parts of an organism’s DNA that does not code for proteins

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Definition

Ribosomal RNA

RNA that is involved in assembling the ribosome, the site of protein synthesis

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Definition

Repetitive DNA

All the sequences of DNA that are repeated throughout the genome

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Definition

Karyotype

A visual display of all the chromosomes in a cell, arranged in homologous pairs and a decreasing-size order

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