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Lesson Flashcards: Using Restriction Enzymes Biology

Enzyme

A biological catalyst that speeds up the rate of reactions without being used up

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid molecule that carries the genetic instructions in living things and typically takes the form of a double helix

Phosphodiester bond

The chemical bond that forms between a phosphate group and two sugar molecules in nucleic acids, such as DNA

Recombinant DNA

DNA combined from at least two different sources to form new genetic information not previously found in the genome

Recognition sequence

A specific sequence of DNA that a restriction enzyme recognizes and cleaves

Substrate

A molecule, or a combination of molecules, that is specific and complementary in shape for a particular enzyme’s active site

Blunt ends

The DNA sequences that are produced by the cutting of restriction enzymes that have no unpaired sequences and terminate with a base pair

EcoRI

The restriction enzyme that recognizes the DNA sequence GAATTC

5′ and 3′

The numbers that refer to the specific carbon in the deoxyribose backbone of DNA to which a new deoxyribonucleotide bonds

Restriction enzyme (restriction endonuclease)

An enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific, typically palindromic, sequence

Hydrolysis

A chemical reaction that breaks a bond between molecules through the addition of a water molecule

Palindrome

A word or sequence that reads the same forward and backward

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