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Lesson Flashcards: Genetic and Chromosomal Mutations Biology

Insertion mutation

The process in which one or more new bases are added to a location with an organism’s DNA sequence

Induced (or acquired) mutations

Mutations that arise from exposure to environmental substances or conditions that occur only in some of an organism’s cells and are rarely inherited

Deletion mutation

The process in which one or more existing base pairs are lost (or deleted) from an organism’s DNA sequence

Phenotype

The observable traits of an organism, determined by the organism’s genotype

Substitution mutation

The process in which a DNA base is swapped for another DNA base at a specific position in an organism’s DNA sequence

Chromosomal inversion

Chromosomal rearrangements where a chromosome segment is reversed end to end

Chromosomal deletion

The process after which a chromosomal segment or a whole chromosome is lost from an organism’s genome

Chromosomal duplication

A process that leads to an organism carrying an extra chromosome (or chromosomes) or chromosomal segment (or segments)

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