Lesson Flashcards: Structure of the Stem Biology

Transport systems

Systems that move required substances around an organism’s body

Medullary rays

Regions of parenchyma tissue between the vascular bundles in dicots that mainly function as storage tissue and also transport materials from the vascular bundles to the pith for storage


A tissue consisting of rigid, thick-walled, and lignified cells that provide strength and mechanical support in stems and leaves


A spongy central tissue in dicot stems that mainly functions as a storage tissue


A vascular tissue in plants that transports water and dissolved mineral ions from the roots to the other parts of the plant

Collenchyma cells

Long cells with thick cell walls found under the epidermis and that provide support, structure, and flexibility to the plant


A layer of meristematic cells between the xylem and phloem tissues in dicots


A plant that produces seeds containing one cotyledon that serves as a food store for the plant embryo and later develops into the first leaf upon germination

Meristematic cells

Actively dividing, unspecialized plant cells

Waxy cuticle

A waterproof layer containing cutin that covers plant structures (e.g., leaves, stem) to minimize water loss from the plant by evaporation, protects the structure from mechanical damage, and helps to prevent the entrance of microorganisms that may cause infection


A seed’s food stores that provide nutrients to the developing plant embryo during germination and will eventually form the plant’s first leaves

Vascular bundle

A part of a plant’s transport system that is primarily made up of xylem and phloem tissues

Parenchyma cells

Thin-walled cells that make up the bulk of the inside of nonwoody plant structures, such as leaves, stems, and roots


A long, stalk-like structure that forms the main body of a plant, plays a major role in the plant’s support and movement, and contains elements that allow the transport of essential substances

Endodermis (starch sheath)

The innermost cortex layer that functions to store starch and regulate the movement of water, ions, and plant hormones in the plant’s transport system


A plant that produces seeds containing two cotyledons that serve as food stores for the plant embryo and later develop into the first leaves upon germination


A region that is filled with parenchyma cells or sclerenchyma fiber cells that surround the vascular bundles and support them by holding the xylem and phloem tubes upright


An outer layer of tissue located between the epidermis and the vascular tissue of a stem or root


A single layer of cells covering a plant’s leaves, flowers, roots, and stems, forming a boundary to the external environment

Nagwa uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Learn more about our Privacy Policy.