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Lesson Flashcards: Cloning DNA Sequences Biology

Reverse transcriptase

An enzyme used to make cDNA from mRNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid molecule that carries the genetic instructions in living things and typically takes the form of a double helix

Plasmid

A small, circular DNA molecule that may contain additional genes not found in the bacterial chromosome, such as genes for antibiotic resistance

DNA polymerase

The enzyme that synthesizes a second strand of DNA to convert single-stranded DNA into double-stranded DNA

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

A technique used to amplify sequences of DNA using the enzyme Taq polymerase and a sequence of heating and cooling cycles

cDNA (complementary DNA)

The DNA that is produced from a specific sequence of RNA and, therefore, is complementary to that RNA sequence

DNA cloning

The process of making more copies of a particular segment of DNA

Recombinant DNA

DNA combined from at least two different sources to form new genetic information not previously found in the genome

DNA ligase

An enzyme that can join the gaps between the sugar–phosphate backbones of two pieces of DNA by forming a phosphodiester bond

Bacterial transformation

The process by which bacterial cells take up DNA from their environment

Clone

A genetically identical copy of an organism or DNA sequence

Complementary base pairing

Specific rules of base pairing, which are critical to DNA replication and transcription, where adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) or uracil (U) in RNA, while guanine (G) binds to cytosine (C)

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