Lesson Flashcards: The Pituitary Gland Biology

Endocrine gland

A type of gland consisting of a group of specialized cells that secrete hormones directly into the blood

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)

A lobe of the pituitary gland that is an extension of the hypothalamus and secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

Pituitary gland

An endocrine gland connected to the brain that regulates many important body functions and controls other endocrine glands

Growth hormone (GH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and has a main role in stimulating growth and metabolism

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

A hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland to control the secretion of hormones from the thyroid

Infundibulum

The stalk that connects the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland

Hormones

Chemical messengers usually transported in the blood or another medium throughout an organism’s body to regulate the activity of cell targets or tissues

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

A gonadotropin hormone released by the pituitary gland that acts in synergy with FSH to stimulate the release of sex hormones by the gonads

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

A hormone that stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete cortisol

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin)

A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland to regulate kidney functions, blood pressure, and social behaviors

Gonadotropic hormones

A group of hormones that include LH and FSH, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland to control the development and functions of the gonads

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

A gonadotropin hormone released by the pituitary gland that acts in synergy with LH and has a role in stimulating puberty and gamete production in the gonads

Hypothalamus

An important control center in the brain that coordinates the nervous system and the endocrine system

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

A hormone, also commonly known as vasopressin, produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland to regulate kidney functions and blood pressure

Homeostasis

The maintenance and regulation of a constant, normal internal environment that allows the biological processes to function properly within an organism

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin)

A pituitary hormone that stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete cortisol

Tropic hormones

Hormones that affect the secretion of other endocrine glands

Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)

The biggest part of the pituitary gland, regulating important body functions like growth and metabolism and controlling other endocrine glands in the body

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