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Lesson Flashcards: Translation Biology

tRNA (transfer RNA)

A type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome for translation

Translation

The process of converting an mRNA sequence into a polypeptide that can fold into a protein

Codon

A sequence of three nucleotides of DNA or RNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid

Peptidyl transferase

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond by linking amino acids to the growing polypeptide during translation

Amino acid

The monomers making up proteins, each of which containing a central carbon linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain that varies between the 20 standard amino acids

Ribosomes

Large protein and RNA complexes that perform the translation of mRNA to synthesize polypeptides

Stop codon

The codon that signals the end of the protein sequence by terminating the translation of the mRNA by the ribosome

Anticodon

The complementary sequence to an mRNA codon that is found in tRNA

Polypeptide

A single linear chain of amino acids that are held together by peptide bonds, which can fold into a protein with a specific function

5′ and 3′

The numbers that refer to the specific carbon in the deoxyribose backbone of DNA to which a new deoxyribonucleotide bonds

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