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Lesson Flashcards: Faults and Joints Geology

Strike-slip fault

A fault where the fault plane is vertical and the movement along the fault plane is horizontal

Fault plane

The surface along which movement takes place

Joint

A fracture in a rock along which no observable movement has occurred

Fault breccia

A rock found along fault planes that consists of angular fragments from the rocks on either side of the fault plane

Thrust fault

A type of reverse fault where the fault plane is less than 45 degrees

Tensional stress

The stress that tends to pull something apart

Horst

A rock mass that is the footwall between two normal faults

Reverse fault

A fault resulting from compressional forces, where the hanging wall has moved upward relative to the footwall along the fault plane

Hanging wall

The rock mass that lies above the fault plane

Fault dip

The inclined angle between the fault plane and the horizontal parallel plane at the surface

Stress

Force applied per unit area

Normal fault

A fault resulting from tensional forces, where the hanging wall has moved downward relative to the footwall along the fault plane

Footwall

The rock mass that lies below the fault plane

Fault

A fracture in a rock along which there has been an observable amount of displacement

Graben

A rock mass that is the hanging wall between two normal faults

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