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Lesson Flashcards: Types of RNA Biology

Translation

The process of converting an mRNA sequence into a polypeptide that can fold into a protein

Codon

A sequence of three nucleotides of DNA or RNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid

DNA replication

The process by which two identical DNA molecules are produced from a single original DNA molecule

Transcription

The process of converting a DNA sequence into RNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

The molecule that carries the genetic instructions for life and is composed of two nucleotide strands that coil around each other to form a double helix

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid molecule that carries the genetic instructions in living things and typically takes the form of a double helix

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid molecule that carries the genetic instructions for life and typically takes the form of a double helix

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

A single-stranded polynucleotide that results from the transcription of the genetic sequence of a gene, mediates protein synthesis, and can carry the genetic material in some viruses

Central dogma of molecular biology

A dogma that describes the process of converting the instructions encoded by DNA into RNA and then into functional proteins

Anticodon

The complementary sequence to an mRNA codon that is found in tRNA

tRNA (transfer RNA)

A type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome for translation

rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

A type of noncoding RNA that forms one of the major components of ribosomes

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