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Lesson Flashcards: The Genetic Code Biology

Central dogma of molecular biology

A dogma that describes the process of converting the instructions encoded by DNA into RNA and then into functional proteins

Transcription

The process of converting a DNA sequence into RNA

Codon

A sequence of three nucleotides of DNA or RNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid

Protein

A complex biological macromolecule, made up of amino acid monomers, that can have a wide variety of forms and functions

Characteristic (trait)

An observable, heritable feature of an organism

Translation

The process of converting an mRNA sequence into a polypeptide that can fold into a protein

Amino acid

The monomers making up proteins, each of which containing a central carbon linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain that varies between the 20 standard amino acids

Nonoverlapping (genetic code)

A term that describes the condition in which the genetic code is translated in groups of three and the same base is not used twice in translating a codon

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