In this explainer, we will learn how to write explicit and recursive formulas for arithmetic sequences to find the value of the th term in an arithmetic sequence and how to find a termβs order given its value.

### Definition: Arithmetic Sequences

A sequence is arithmetic if there is a common difference between any two consecutive terms.

An example of an arithmetic sequence would be the two times table:

Here, there is clearly a common difference of two between each of the consecutive terms. Equally, any other times table is also an arithmetic sequence. Another example would be the sequence of odd numbers:

This is another sequence with a common difference of two between each consecutive term and can be thought of as the two times table shifted down by one.

Before looking at arithmetic sequences in more detail, let us define some notation. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is generally called or . The common difference is generally called ; the second term, , would then be , the third term, , would be , and so on:

In order to clarify that a sequence is arithmetic, we would have to check the common difference is equal between every two consecutive terms. To find the common difference, we choose any term from the sequence and then subtract it from the term immediately after it. For example, we could calculate or . Once we have calculated the common difference, we can easily calculate successive terms of the sequence by adding the difference to the previous term. Let us look at an example. Consider the arithmetic sequence

We can calculate the common difference by finding the difference between any two terms. Here, consider and :

We are given the first four terms, so, to work out the fifth term, , we add 4 to the fourth term, :

The sixth term, , is then , and finally, . So, the next three terms of the sequence are

For a question like this, you do not need to show this level of working out, but it is useful in developing higher level concepts. For example, we may be asked to find the term of an arithmetic sequence. We have just shown that terms can be calculated by adding the common difference to successive terms. As shown before, the sequence can be represented in the following way:

Notice here that the coefficient of (the number in front of ) is always one less than the position of the term. The fourth term for instance is . We can generalize this for the term as the coefficient of will be one less than the position, , so, . We can use this formula to calculate the general term or term for any given arithmetic sequence. Let us demonstrate this with an example.

### Example 1: Finding the πth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

Using the table, determine the expression that represents the value of each term as a function of its position. Then, find the value of the fifteenth term in the sequence.

Position | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Value of Term | 4 | 9 | 14 | 19 |

### Answer

First, we need to establish the common difference, , between each of the consecutive terms. We are told the values of , and , so

The common differences are equal so we can assume that the sequence is arithmetic. We know that the second term is equal to where is the first term and is the common difference, so

Substituting , we get and solving, we see that . Recall that the term is

We can, therefore, substitute the value of and to get which simplifies to

To find the 15th term, we substitute :

The example above demonstrates a very formal method for finding the term of an arithmetic sequence. We can take a less formal approach which we will demonstrate now.

As we mentioned at the start, a times table is an arithmetic sequence. For example, the two times table:

If you wanted to find the 7th term of the two times table, you would multiply 2 by 7. If you wanted to calculate the 12th term, you would multiply 2 by 12. Similarly, if you wanted to calculate the term you would multiply 2 by so . For the 8 times table, the term would be and so on. Any arithmetic sequence can be described as a shift of a times table. Consider the sequence

Here, the common difference, , is 3, so this sequence is a shift of the three times table. We can write down the two sequences and identify the shift as shown below:

We know that the three times table has an term of and this sequence is a shift of the three times table by , so the term of this sequence is . We can take a similar approach if the common difference is negative; we just compare the sequence to a negative times table.

Let us look at one more example.

### Example 2: Finding the πth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

Find, in terms of , the general term of the arithmetic sequence .

### Answer

First, we need to calculate the common difference between the terms by subtracting from :

We can, therefore, compare the sequence with the two times table as shown below:

We can see from that the sequence is a shift of the two times table down by 9. Hence, the term of the sequence is