Companies often make large purchases, such as computers and vehicles, for business use. The book-value of these supplies decreases each year for tax purposes. This decrease in value is called depreciation. One method of calculating depreciation is straight-line depreciation, in which the value of the asset decreases by the same amount each year.
As an example, consider a woman who starts a small contracting business. She purchases a new truck for $25,000. After five years, she estimates that she will be able to sell the truck for $8,000. The loss in value of the truck will therefore be $17,000, which is $3,400 per year for five years. The truck will be worth $21,600 after the first year; $18,200 after two years; $14,800 after three years; $11,400 after four years; and $8,000 at the end of five years. In this section, we will consider specific kinds of sequences that will allow us to calculate depreciation, such as the truck’s value.
The values of the truck in the example are said to form an arithmetic sequence because they change by a constant amount each year. Each term increases or decreases by the same constant value called the common difference of the sequence. For this sequence, the common difference is 3,400.
The sequence below is another example of an arithmetic sequence. In this case, the constant difference is 3. You can choose any term of the sequence, and add 3 to find the subsequent term.
An arithmetic sequence is a sequence that has the property that the difference between any two consecutive terms is a constant. This constant is called the common difference. If is the first term of an arithmetic sequence and is the common difference, the sequence will be:
Is each sequence arithmetic? If so, find the common difference.
Subtract each term from the subsequent term to determine whether a common difference exists.
The graph of each of these sequences is shown in Figure 1. We can see from the graphs that, although both sequences show growth, a is not linear whereas b is linear. Arithmetic sequences have a constant rate of change so their graphs will always be points on a line.
If we are told that a sequence is arithmetic, do we have to subtract every term from the following term to find the common difference?
No. If we know that the sequence is arithmetic, we can choose any one term in the sequence, and subtract it from the subsequent term to find the common difference.
Now that we can recognize an arithmetic sequence, we will find the terms if we are given the first term and the common difference. The terms can be found by beginning with the first term and adding the common difference repeatedly. In addition, any term can also be found by plugging in the values of and into formula below.
Given the first term and the common difference of an arithmetic sequence, find the first several terms.
Write the first five terms of the arithmetic sequence with and .
Adding is the same as subtracting 3. Beginning with the first term, subtract 3 from each term to find the next term.
The first five terms are
As expected, the graph of the sequence consists of points on a line as shown in Figure 2.
Given any first term and any other term in an arithmetic sequence, find a given term.
Given and , find .
The sequence can be written in terms of the initial term 8 and the common difference .
We know the fourth term equals 14; we know the fourth term has the form .
We can find the common difference .
Find the fifth term by adding the common difference to the fourth term.
Notice that the common difference is added to the first term once to find the second term, twice to find the third term, three times to find the fourth term, and so on. The tenth term could be found by adding the common difference to the first term nine times or by using the equation .
Some arithmetic sequences are defined in terms of the previous term using a recursive formula. The formula provides an algebraic rule for determining the terms of the sequence. A recursive formula allows us to find any term of an arithmetic sequence using a function of the preceding term. Each term is the sum of the previous term and the common difference. For example, if the common difference is 5, then each term is the previous term plus 5. As with any recursive formula, the first term must be given.
The recursive formula for an arithmetic sequence with common difference d is:
Given an arithmetic sequence, write its recursive formula.
Write a recursive formula for the arithmetic sequence.
The first term is given as . The common difference can be found by subtracting the first term from the second term.
Substitute the initial term and the common difference into the recursive formula for arithmetic sequences.
We see that the common difference is the slope of the line formed when we graph the terms of the sequence, as shown in Figure 3. The growth pattern of the sequence shows the constant difference of 11 units.
Do we have to subtract the first term from the second term to find the common difference?
No. We can subtract any term in the sequence from the subsequent term. It is, however, most common to subtract the first term from the second term because it is often the easiest method of finding the common difference.
We can think of an arithmetic sequence as a function on the domain of the natural numbers; it is a linear function because it has a constant rate of change. The common difference is the constant rate of change, or the slope of the function. We can construct the linear function if we know the slope and the vertical intercept.
To find the -intercept of the function, we can subtract the common difference from the first term of the sequence. Consider the following sequence.
The common difference is , so the sequence represents a linear function with a slope of . To find the -intercept, we subtract from 200: 200 . You can also find the -intercept by graphing the function and determining where a line that connects the points would intersect the vertical axis. The graph is shown in Figure 4.
Recall the slope-intercept form of a line is . When dealing with sequences, we use in place of and in place of . If we know the slope and vertical intercept of the function, we can substitute them for and in the slopeintercept form of a line. Substituting for the slope and 250 for the vertical intercept, we get the following equation:
We do not need to find the vertical intercept to write an explicit formula for an arithmetic sequence. Another explicit formula for this sequence is , which simplifies to .
An explicit formula for the th term of an arithmetic sequence is given by
Given the first several terms for an arithmetic sequence, write an explicit formula.
Write an explicit formula for the arithmetic sequence.
The common difference can be found by subtracting the first term from the second term.
The common difference is 10. Substitute the common difference and the first term of the sequence into the formula and simplify.
The graph of this sequence, represented in Figure 5, shows a slope of 10 and a vertical intercept of .
Explicit formulas can be used to determine the number of terms in a finite arithmetic sequence. We need to find the common difference, and then determine how many times the common difference must be added to the first term to obtain the final term of the sequence.
Given the first three terms and the last term of a finite arithmetic sequence, find the total number of terms..
Find the number of terms in the finite arithmetic sequence.
The common difference can be found by subtracting the first term from the second term.
The common difference is . Substitute the common difference and the initial term of the sequence into the nth term formula and simplify.
Substitute for and solve for
There are eight terms in the sequence.
In many application problems, it often makes sense to use an initial term of instead of . In these problems, we alter the explicit formula slightly to account for the difference in initial terms. We use the following formula:
A five-year old child receives an allowance of $1 each week. His parents promise him an annual increase of per week.
The situation can be modeled by an arithmetic sequence with an initial term of 1 and a common difference of 2.
Let be the amount of the allowance and be the number of years after age 5. Using the altered explicit formula for an arithmetic sequence we get: