# Course: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics • Ninth Edition

• Part 1 Mechanics
• 1 Physics and Measurement
• 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time
• 1.2 Matter and Model Building
• 1.3 Dimensional Analysis
• 1.4 Conversion of Units
• 1.5 Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
• 1.6 Significant Figures
• 2 Motion in One Dimension
• 2.1 Position, Velocity, and Speed
• 2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
• 2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity
• 2.4 Acceleration
• 2.5 Motion Diagrams
• 2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration
• 2.7 Freely Falling Objects
• 2.8 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus
• 3 Vectors
• 3.1 Coordinate Systems
• 3.2 Vector and Scalar Quantities
• 3.3 Some Properties of Vectors
• 3.4 Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors
• 4 Motion in Two Dimensions
• 4.1 The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
• 4.2 Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
• 4.3 Projectile Motion
• 4.4 Analysis Model: Particle in Uniform Circular Motion
• 4.5 Tangential and Radial Acceleration
• 4.6 Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration
• 5 The Laws of Motion
• 5.1 The Concept of Force
• 5.2 Newton’s First Law and Inertial Frames
• 5.3 Mass
• 5.4 Newton’s Second Law
• 5.5 The Gravitational Force and Weight
• 5.6 Newton’s Third Law
• 5.7 Analysis Models Using Newton’s Second Law
• 5.8 Forces of Friction
• 6 Circular Motion and Other Applications of Newton’s Laws
• 6.1 Extending the Particle in Uniform Circular Motion Model
• 6.2 Nonuniform Circular Motion
• 6.3 Motion in Accelerated Frames
• 6.4 Motion in the Presence of Resistive Forces
• 7 Energy of a System
• 7.1 Systems and Environments
• 7.2 Work Done by a Constant Force
• 7.3 The Scalar Product of Two Vectors
• 7.4 Work Done by a Varying Force
• 7.5 Kinetic Energy and the Work–Kinetic Energy Theorem
• 7.6 Potential Energy of a System
• 7.7 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
• 7.8 Relationship Between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
• 7.9 Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a System
• 8 Conservation of Energy
• 8.1 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Energy)
• 8.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Energy)
• 8.3 Situations Involving Kinetic Friction
• 8.4 Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative Forces
• 8.5 Power
• 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
• 9.1 Linear Momentum
• 9.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Momentum)
• 9.3 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Momentum)
• 9.4 Collisions in One Dimension
• 9.5 Collisions in Two Dimensions
• 9.6 The Center of Mass
• 9.7 Systems of Many Particles
• 9.8 Deformable Systems
• 9.9 Rocket Propulsion
• 10 Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis
• 10.1 Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
• 10.2 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under Constant Angular Acceleration
• 10.3 Angular and Translational Quantities
• 10.4 Torque
• 10.5 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under a Net Torque
• 10.6 Calculation of Moments of Inertia
• 10.7 Rotational Kinetic Energy
• 10.8 Energy Considerations in Rotational Motion
• 10.9 Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object
• 11 Angular Momentum
• 11.1 The Vector Product and Torque
• 11.2 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Angular Momentum)
• 11.3 Angular Momentum of a Rotating Rigid Object
• 11.4 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Angular Momentum)
• 11.5 The Motion of Gyroscopes and Tops
• 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
• 12.1 Analysis Model: Rigid Object in Equilibrium
• 12.2 More on the Center of Gravity
• 12.3 Examples of Rigid Objects in Static Equilibrium
• 12.4 Elastic Properties of Solids
• 13 Universal Gravitation
• 13.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
• 13.2 Free-Fall Acceleration and the Gravitational Force
• 13.3 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Gravitational)
• 13.4 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion of Planets
• 13.5 Gravitational Potential Energy
• 13.6 Energy Considerations in Planetary and Satellite Motion
• 14 Fluid Mechanics
• 14.1 Pressure
• 14.2 Variation of Pressure with Depth
• 14.3 Pressure Measurements
• 14.4 Buoyant Forces and Archimedes’s Principle
• 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
• 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
• 14.7 Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics
• Part 2 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves
• 15 Oscillatory Motion
• 15.1 Motion of an Object Attached to a Spring
• 15.2 Analysis Model: Particle in Simple Harmonic Motion
• 15.3 Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
• 15.4 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion
• 15.5 The Pendulum
• 15.6 Damped Oscillations
• 15.7 Forced Oscillations
• 16 Wave Motion
• 16.1 Propagation of a Disturbance
• 16.2 Analysis Model: Traveling Wave
• 16.3 The Speed of Waves on Strings
• 16.4 Reflection and Transmission
• 16.5 Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings
• 16.6 The Linear Wave Equation
• 17 Sound Waves
• 17.1 Pressure Variations in Sound Waves
• 17.2 Speed of Sound Waves
• 17.3 Intensity of Periodic Sound Waves
• 17.4 The Doppler Effect
• 18 Superposition and Standing Waves
• 18.1 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference
• 18.2 Standing Waves
• 18.3 Analysis Model: Waves Under Boundary Conditions
• 18.4 Resonance
• 18.5 Standing Waves in Air Columns
• 18.6 Standing Waves in Rods and Membranes
• 18.7 Beats: Interference in Time
• 18.8 Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns
• Part 3 Thermodynamics
• 19 Temperature
• 19.1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
• 19.2 Thermometers and the Celsius Temperature Scale
• 19.3 The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer and the Absolute Temperature Scale
• 19.4 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
• 19.5 Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas
• 20 The First Law of Thermodynamics
• 20.1 Heat and Internal Energy
• 20.2 Specific Heat and Calorimetry
• 20.3 Latent Heat
• 20.4 Work and Heat in Thermodynamic Processes
• 20.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics
• 20.6 Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics
• 20.7 Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Thermal Processes
• 21 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
• 21.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
• 21.2 Molar Specific Heat of an Ideal Gas
• 21.3 The Equipartition of Energy
• 21.4 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
• 21.5 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
• 22 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
• 22.1 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
• 22.2 Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
• 22.3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
• 22.4 The Carnot Engine
• 22.5 Gasoline and Diesel Engines
• 22.6 Entropy
• 22.7 Changes in Entropy for Thermodynamic Systems
• 22.8 Entropy and the Second Law
• Part 4 Electricity and Magnetism
• 23 Electric Fields
• 23.1 Properties of Electric Charges
• 23.2 Charging Objects by Induction
• 23.3 Coulomb’s Law
• 23.4 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Electric)
• 23.5 Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution
• 23.6 Electric Field Lines
• 23.7 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Electric Field
• 24 Gauss’s Law
• 24.1 Electric Flux
• 24.2 Gauss’s Law
• 24.3 Application of Gauss’s Law to Various Charge Distributions
• 24.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
• 25 Electric Potential
• 25.1 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
• 25.2 Potential Difference in a Uniform Electric Field
• 25.3 Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges
• 25.4 Obtaining the Value of the Electric Field from the Electric Potential
• 25.5 Electric Potential Due to Continuous Charge Distributions
• 25.6 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Conductor
• 25.7 The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment
• 25.8 Applications of Electrostatics
• 26 Capacitance and Dielectrics
• 26.1 Definition of Capacitance
• 26.2 Calculating Capacitance
• 26.3 Combinations of Capacitors
• 26.4 Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor
• 26.5 Capacitors with Dielectrics
• 26.6 Electric Dipole in an Electric Field
• 26.7 An Atomic Description of Dielectrics
• 27 Current and Resistance
• 27.1 Electric Current
• 27.2 Resistance
• 27.3 A Model for Electrical Conduction
• 27.4 Resistance and Temperature
• 27.5 Superconductors
• 27.6 Electrical Power
• 28 Direct-Current Circuits
• 28.1 Electromotive Force
• 28.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
• 28.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
• 28.4 RC Circuits
• 28.5 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
• 29 Magnetic Fields
• 29.1 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Magnetic)
• 29.2 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field
• 29.3 Applications Involving Charged Particles Moving in a Magnetic Field
• 29.4 Magnetic Force Acting on a Current-Carrying Conductor
• 29.5 Torque on a Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field
• 29.6 The Hall Effect
• 30 Sources of the Magnetic Field
• 30.1 The Biot–Savart Law
• 30.2 The Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors
• 30.3 Ampère’s Law
• 30.4 The Magnetic Field of a Solenoid
• 30.5 Gauss’s Law in Magnetism
• 30.6 Magnetism in Matter
• 31.1 Faraday’s Law of Induction
• 31.2 Motional emf
• 31.3 Lenz’s Law
• 31.4 Induced emf and Electric Fields
• 31.5 Generators and Motors
• 31.6 Eddy Currents
• 32 Inductance
• 32.1 Self-Induction and Inductance
• 32.2 RL Circuits
• 32.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
• 32.4 Mutual Inductance
• 32.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
• 32.6 The RLC Circuit
• 33 Alternating-Current Circuits
• 33.1 AC Sources
• 33.2 Resistors in an AC Circuit
• 33.3 Inductors in an AC Circuit
• 33.4 Capacitors in an AC Circuit
• 33.5 The RLC Series Circuit
• 33.6 Power in an AC Circuit
• 33.7 Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit
• 33.8 The Transformer and Power Transmission
• 33.9 Rectifiers and Filters
• 34 Electromagnetic Waves
• 34.1 Displacement Current and the General Form of Ampère’s Law
• 34.2 Maxwell’s Equations and Hertz’s Discoveries
• 34.3 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
• 34.4 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
• 34.5 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
• 34.6 Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna
• 34.7 The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves
• Part 5 Light and Optics
• 35 The Nature of Light and the Principles of Ray Optics
• 35.1 The Nature of Light
• 35.2 Measurements of the Speed of Light
• 35.3 The Ray Approximation in Ray Optics
• 35.4 Analysis Model: Wave Under Reflection
• 35.5 Analysis Model: Wave Under Refraction
• 35.6 Huygens’s Principle
• 35.7 Dispersion
• 35.8 Total Internal Reflection
• 36 Image Formation
• 36.1 Images Formed by Flat Mirrors
• 36.2 Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
• 36.3 Images Formed by Refraction
• 36.4 Images Formed by Thin Lenses
• 36.5 Lens Aberrations
• 36.6 The Camera
• 36.7 The Eye
• 36.8 The Simple Magnifier
• 36.9 The Compound Microscope
• 36.10 The Telescope
• 37 Wave Optics
• 37.1 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
• 37.2 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference
• 37.3 Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit Interference Pattern
• 37.4 Change of Phase Due to Reflection
• 37.5 Interference in Thin Films
• 37.6 The Michelson Interferometer
• 38 Diffraction Patterns and Polarization
• 38.1 Introduction to Diffraction Patterns
• 38.2 Diffraction Patterns from Narrow Slits
• 38.3 Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures
• 38.4 The Diffraction Grating
• 38.5 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals
• 38.6 Polarization of Light Waves
• Part 6 Modern Physics
• 39 Relativity
• 39.1 The Principle of Galilean Relativity
• 39.2 The Michelson–Morley Experiment
• 39.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity
• 39.4 Consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity
• 39.5 The Lorentz Transformation Equations
• 39.6 The Lorentz Velocity Transformation Equations
• 39.7 Relativistic Linear Momentum
• 39.8 Relativistic Energy
• 39.9 The General Theory of Relativity
• 40 Introduction to Quantum Physics
• 40.1 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis
• 40.2 The Photoelectric Effect
• 40.3 The Compton Effect
• 40.4 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
• 40.5 The Wave Properties of Particles
• 40.6 A New Model: The Quantum Particle
• 40.7 The Double-Slit Experiment Revisited
• 40.8 The Uncertainty Principle
• 41 Quantum Mechanics
• 41.1 The Wave Function
• 41.2 Analysis Model: Quantum Particle Under Boundary Conditions
• 41.3 The Schrödinger Equation
• 41.4 A Particle in a Well of Finite Height
• 41.5 Tunneling Through a Potential Energy Barrier
• 41.6 Applications of Tunneling
• 41.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator
• 42 Atomic Physics
• 42.1 Atomic Spectra of Gases
• 42.2 Early Models of the Atom
• 42.3 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
• 42.4 The Quantum Model of the Hydrogen Atom
• 42.5 The Wave Functions for Hydrogen
• 42.6 Physical Interpretation of the Quantum Numbers
• 42.7 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
• 42.8 More on Atomic Spectra: Visible and X-Ray
• 42.9 Spontaneous and Stimulated Transitions
• 42.10 Lasers
• 43 Molecules and Solids
• 43.1 Molecular Bonds
• 43.2 Energy States and Spectra of Molecules
• 43.3 Bonding in Solids
• 43.4 Free-Electron Theory of Metals
• 43.5 Band Theory of Solids
• 43.6 Electrical Conduction in Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors
• 43.7 Semiconductor Devices
• 43.8 Superconductivity
• 44 Nuclear Structure
• 44.1 Some Properties of Nuclei
• 44.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
• 44.3 Nuclear Models
• 44.5 The Decay Processes
• 44.7 Nuclear Reactions
• 44.8 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
• 45 Applications of Nuclear Physics
• 45.1 Interactions Involving Neutrons
• 45.2 Nuclear Fission
• 45.3 Nuclear Reactors
• 45.4 Nuclear Fusion
• 46 Particle Physics and Cosmology
• 46.1 The Fundamental Forces in Nature
• 46.2 Positrons and Other Antiparticles
• 46.3 Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics
• 46.4 Classification of Particles
• 46.5 Conservation Laws
• 46.6 Strange Particles and Strangeness
• 46.7 Finding Patterns in the Particles
• 46.8 Quarks
• 46.9 Multicolored Quarks
• 46.10 The Standard Model
• 46.11 The Cosmic Connection
• 46.12 Problems and Perspectives

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