# Course: Physics • Principles with Applications • Seventh Edition

• 1 Introduction, Measurement, Estimating
• 1-1 The Nature of Science
• 1-2 Physics and Its Relation to Other Fields
• 1-3 Models Theories, and Laws
• 1-4 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures
• 1-5 Units Standards, and the SI System
• 1-6 Converting Units
• 1-7 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating
• *1-8 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
• 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
• 2-1 Reference Frames and Displacement
• 2-2 Average Velocity
• 2-3 Instantaneous Velocity
• 2-4 Acceleration
• 2-5 Motion at Constant Acceleration
• 2-6 Solving Problems
• 2-7 Freely Falling Objects
• 2-8 Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion
• 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors
• 3-1 Vectors and Scalars
• 3-2 Addition of Vectors—Graphical Methods
• 3-3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
• 3-4 Adding Vectors by Components
• 3-5 Projectile Motion
• 3-6 Solving Projectile Motion Problems
• *3-7 Projectile Motion Is Parabolic
• 3-8 Relative Velocity
• 4 Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
• 4-1 Force
• 4-2 Newton’s First Law of Motion
• 4-3 Mass
• 4-4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
• 4-5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
• 4-6 Weight—the Force of Gravity: and the Normal Force
• 4-7 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws: Free-Body Diagrams
• 4-8 Problems Involving Friction, Inclines
• 5 Circular Motion; Gravitation
• 5-1 Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
• 5-2 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
• 5-3 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked
• *5-4 Nonuniform Circular Motion
• 5-5 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
• 5-6 Gravity Near the Earth’s Surface
• 5-7 Satellites and “Weightlessness”
• 5-8 Planets, Kepler’s Laws, and Newton’s Synthesis
• 5-9 Moon Rises an Hour Later Each Day
• 5-10 Types of Forces in Nature
• 6 Work and Energy
• 6-1 Work Done by a Constant Force
• *6-2 Work Done by a Varying Force
• 6-3 Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle
• 6-4 Potential Energy
• 6-5 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
• 6-6 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation
• 6-7 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy
• 6-8 Other Forms of Energy and Energy Transformations; The Law of Conservation of Energy
• 6-9 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems
• 6-10 Power
• 7 Linear Momentum
• 7-1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force
• 7-2 Conservation of Momentum
• 7-3 Collisions and Impulse
• 7-4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions
• 7-5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
• 7-6 Inelastic Collisions
• *7-7 Collisions in Two Dimensions
• 7-8 Center of Mass (CM)
• *7-9 CM for the Human Body
• *7-10 CM and Translational Motion
• 8 Rotational Motion
• 8-1 Angular Quantities
• 8-2 Constant Angular Acceleration
• 8-3 Rolling Motion (Without Slipping)
• 8-4 Torque
• 8-5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia
• 8-6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics
• 8-7 Rotational Kinetic Energy
• 8-8 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
• *8-9 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
• 9 Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture
• 9-1 The Conditions for Equilibrium
• 9-2 Solving Statics Problems
• 9-3 Applications to Muscles and Joints
• 9-4 Stability and Balance
• 9-5 Elasticity; Stress and Strain
• 9-6 Fracture
• *9-7 Spanning a Space: Arches and Domes
• 10 Fluids
• 10-1 Phases of Matter
• 10-2 Density and Specific Gravity
• 10-3 Pressure in Fluids
• 10-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
• 10-5 Pascal’s Principle
• 10-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
• 10-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle
• 10-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
• 10-9 Bernoulli’s Equation
• 10-10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, Blood Flow
• *10-11 Viscosity
• *10-12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow
• *10-13 Surface Tension and Capillarity
• *10-14 Pumps, and the Heart
• 11 Oscillations and Waves
• 11-1 Simple Harmonic Motion—Spring Oscillations
• 11-2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
• 11-3 The Period and Sinusoidal Nature of SHM
• 11-4 The Simple Pendulum
• 11-5 Damped Harmonic Motion
• 11-6 Forced Oscillations: Resonance
• 11-7 Wave Motion
• 11-8 Types of Waves and Their Speeds: Transverse and Longitudinal
• 11-9 Energy Transported by Waves
• 11-10 Reflection and Transmission of Waves
• 11-11 Interference; Principle of Superposition
• 11-12 Standing Waves; Resonance
• *11-13 Refraction
• *11-14 Diffraction
• *11-15 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave
• 12 Sound
• 12-1 Characteristics of Sound
• 12-2 Intensity of Sound: Decibels
• *12-3 The Ear and Its Response; Loudness
• 12-4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns
• *12-5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition
• 12-6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats
• 12-7 Doppler Effect
• *12-8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom
• *12-9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging
• 13 Temperature and Kinetic Theory
• 13-1 Atomic Theory of Matter
• 13-2 Temperature and Thermometers
• 13-3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
• 13-4 Thermal Expansion
• 13-5 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
• 13-6 The Ideal Gas Law
• 13-7 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
• 13-8 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number
• 13-9 Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
• 13-10 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
• 13-11 Real Gases and Changes of Phase
• 13-12 Vapor Pressure and Humidity
• *13-13 Diffusion
• 14 Heat
• 14-1 Heat as Energy Transfer
• 14-2 Internal Energy
• 14-3 Specific Heat
• 14-4 Calorimetry—Solving Problems
• 14-5 Latent Heat
• 14-6 Heat Transfer: Conduction
• 14-7 Heat Transfer: Convection
• 15 The Laws of Thermodynamics
• 15-1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
• 15-2 Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law
• *15-3 Human Metabolism and the First Law
• 15-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics—Introduction
• 15-5 Heat Engines
• 15-6 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
• 15-7 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
• 15-8 Order to Disorder
• 15-9 Unavailability of Energy: Heat Death
• *15-10 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
• *15-11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources
• 16 Electric Charge and Electric Field
• 16-1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation
• 16-2 Electric Charge in the Atom
• 16-3 Insulators and Conductors
• 16-4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope
• 16-5 Coulomb’s Law
• 16-6 Solving Problems involving Coulomb’s Law and Vectors
• 16-7 The Electric Field
• 16-8 Electric Field Lines
• 16-9 Electric Fields and Conductors
• *16-10 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication
• *16-11 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics
• *16-12 Gauss’s Law
• 17 Electric Potential
• 17-1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference
• 17-2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field
• 17-3 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces
• 17-4 The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energy
• 17-5 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
• *17-6 Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment
• 17-7 Capacitance
• 17-8 Dielectrics
• 17-9 Storage of Electric Energy
• 17-10 Digital; Binary Numbers; Signal Voltage
• *17-11 TV and Computer Monitors: CRTS, Flat Screens
• *17-12 Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
• 18 Electric Currents
• 18-1 The Electric Battery
• 18-2 Electric Current
• 18-3 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors
• 18-4 Resistivity
• 18-5 Electric Power
• 18-6 Power in Household Circuits
• 18-7 Alternating Current
• *18-8 Microscopic View of Electric Current
• *18-9 Superconductivity
• *18-10 Electrical Conduction in the Human Nervous System
• 19 DC Circuits
• 19-1 EMF and Terminal Voltage
• 19-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel
• 19-3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
• 19-4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery
• 19-5 Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
• 19-6 𝘙𝘊 Circuits-Resistor and Capacitor in Series
• 19-7 Electric Hazards
• 19-8 Ammeters and Voltmeters—Measurement Affects the Quantity Being Measured
• 20 Magnetism
• 20-1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields
• 20-2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields
• 20-3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of ⃗ʙ
• 20-4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field
• 20-5 Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire
• 20-6 Force between Two Parallel Wires
• 20-7 Solenoids and Electromagnets
• 20-8 Ampère’s Law
• 20-9 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Moment
• 20-10 Applications: Motors, Loudspeakers, Galvanometers
• *20-11 Mass Spectrometer
• *20-12 Ferromagnetism: Domains and Hysteresis
• 21 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law
• 21-1 Induced EMF
• 21-2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
• 21-3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor
• 21-4 Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field
• 21-5 Electric Generators
• 21-6 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents
• 21-7 Transformers and Transmission of Power
• *21-8 Information Storage: Magnetic and Semiconductor; Tape, Hard Drive, RAM
• *21-9 Applications of Induction: Microphone, Seismograph, GFCI
• *21-10 Inductance
• *21-11 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
• *21-12 𝘓𝘙 Circuit
• *21-13 AC Circuits and Reactance
• *21-14 𝘓𝘙𝘊 Series AC Circuit
• *21-15 Resonance in AC Circuits
• 22 Electromagnetic Waves
• 22-1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell’s Equations
• 22-2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
• 22-3 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
• 22-4 Measuring the Speed of Light
• 22-5 Energy in EM Waves
• 22-6 Momentum Transfer and Radiation Pressure
• 22-7 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication
• 23 Light: Geometric Optics
• 23-1 The Ray Model of Light
• 23-2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror
• 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
• 23-4 Index of Refraction
• 23-5 Refraction: Snell’s Law
• 23-6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics
• 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
• 23-8 The Thin Lens Equation
• *23-9 Combinations of Lenses
• *23-10 Lensmaker’s Equation
• 24 The Wave Nature of Light
• 24-1 Waves vs. Particles; Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction
• *24-2 Huygens’ Principle and the Law of Refraction
• 24-3 Interference—Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
• 24-4 The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
• 24-5 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk
• 24-6 Diffraction Grating
• 24-7 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
• 24-8 Interference in Thin Films
• *24-9 Michelson Interferometer
• 24-10 Polarization
• *24-11 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
• *24-12 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere
• 25 Optical Instruments
• 25-1 Cameras: Film and Digital
• 25-2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses
• 25-3 Magnifying Glass
• 25-4 Telescopes
• 25-5 Compound Microscope
• 25-6 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors
• 25-7 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
• 25-8 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit
• 25-9 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification
• *25-10 Specialty Microscopes and Contrast
• 25-11 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
• *25-12 X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
• 26 The Special Theory of Relativity
• 26-1 Galilean-Newtonian Relativity
• 26-2 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity
• 26-3 Simultaneity
• 26-4 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
• 26-5 Length Contraction
• 26-6 Four-Dimensional Space-Time
• 26-7 Relativistic Momentum
• 26-8 The Ultimate Speed
• 26-9 𝘌 = 𝘮𝘤^2; Mass and Energy
• 26-10 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
• 26-11 The Impact of Special Relativity
• 27 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom
• 27-1 Discovery and Properties of the Electron
• 27-2 Blackbody Radiation; Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
• 27-3 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect
• 27-4 Energy, Mass, and Momentum of a Photon
• *27-5 Compton Effect
• 27-6 Photon Interactions; Pair Production
• 27-7 Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity
• 27-8 Wave Nature of Matter
• 27-9 Electron Microscopes
• 27-10 Early Models of the Atom
• 27-11 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom
• 27-12 The Bohr Model
• 27-13 de Broglie’s Hypothesis Applied to Atoms
• 28 Quantum Mechanics of Atoms
• 28-1 Quantum Mechanics—A New Theory
• 28-2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment
• 28-3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
• 28-4 Philosophic Implications; Probability versus Determinism
• 28-5 Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms
• 28-6 Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom; Quantum Numbers
• 28-7 Multielectron Atoms; the Exclusion Principle
• 28-8 The Periodic Table of Elements
• *28-9 X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number
• *28-10 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
• 28-11 Lasers
• *28-12 Holography
• 29 Molecules and Solids
• *29-1 Bonding in Molecules
• *29-2 Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules
• *29-3 Weak (van der Waals) Bonds
• *29-4 Molecular Spectra
• *29-5 Bonding in Solids
• *29-6 Free-Electron Theory of Metals; Fermi Energy
• *29-7 Band Theory of Solids
• *29-8 Semiconductors and Doping
• *29-9 Semiconductor Diodes, LEDs, OLEDs
• *29-10 Transistors: Bipolar and MOSFETS
• *29-11 Integrated Circuits, 22-nm Technology
• 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
• 30-1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus
• 30-2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces
• 30-4 Alpha Decay
• 30-5 Beta Decay
• 30-6 Gamma Decay
• 30-7 Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws
• 30-8 Half-Life and Rate of Decay
• 30-9 Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Half-Life
• 30-10 Decay Series
• *30-12 Stability and Tunneling
• 30-13 Detection of Particles
• 31 Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation
• 31-1 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements
• 31-2 Nuclear Fission: Nuclear Reactors
• 31-3 Nuclear Fusion
• 31-4 Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Biological Damage
• *31-7 Tracers in Research and Medicine
• *31-8 Emission Tomography: PET and SPECT
• 31-9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
• 32 Elementary Particles
• 32-1 High-Energy Particles and Accelerators
• 32-2 Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics—Particle Exchange
• 32-3 Particles and Antiparticles
• 32-4 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws
• 32-5 Neutrinos
• 32-6 Particle Classification
• 32-7 Particle Stability and Resonances
• 32-8 Strangeness? Charm? Towards a New Model
• 32-9 Quarks
• 32-10 The Standard Model: QCD and Electroweak Theory
• 32-11 Grand Unified Theories
• 32-12 Strings and Supersymmetry
• 33 Astrophysics and Cosmology
• 33-1 Stars and Galaxies
• 33-2 Stellar Evolution: Birth and Death of Stars, Nucleosynthesis
• 33-3 Distance Measurements
• 33-4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space
• 33-5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble’s Law
• 33-6 The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background
• 33-7 The Standard Cosmological Model: Early History of the Universe
• 33-8 Inflation: Explaining Flatness, Uniformity, and Structure
• 33-9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy
• 33-10 Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
• 33-11 Finally...

Use Nagwa in conjunction with your preferred textbook. The recommended lessons from Nagwa for each section of this textbook are provided below. This course is not affiliated with, sponsored by, or endorsed by the publisher of the referenced textbook. Nagwa is a registered trademark of Nagwa Limited. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.