# Alignment: OpenStax • College Physics

### Table of Contents

• 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
• Physics: An Introduction
• Physical Quantities and Units
• Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
• Approximation
• 2 Kinematics
• Displacement
• Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
• Time, Velocity, and Speed
• Acceleration
• Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
• Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
• Falling Objects
• Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
• 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
• Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
• Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
• Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
• Projectile Motion
• Addition of Velocities
• 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton’s Laws of Motion
• Development of Force Concept
• Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
• Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
• Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
• Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
• Problem-Solving Strategies
• Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
• Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
• 5 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
• Friction
• Drag Forces
• Elasticity: Stress and Strain
• 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
• Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
• Centripetal Acceleration
• Centripetal Force
• Fictitious Forces and Non-Inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
• Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
• Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
• 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
• Work: The Scientific Definition
• Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
• Gravitational Potential Energy
• Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
• Nonconservative Forces
• Conservation of Energy
• Power
• Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
• World Energy Use
• 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
• Linear Momentum and Force
• Impulse
• Conservation of Momentum
• Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
• Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
• Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
• Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
• 9 Statics and Torque
• The First Condition for Equilibrium
• The Second Condition for Equilibrium
• Stability
• Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
• Simple Machines
• Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
• 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
• Angular Acceleration
• Kinematics of Rotational Motion
• Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
• Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
• Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
• Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
• Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
• 11 Fluid Statics
• What Is a Fluid?
• Density
• Pressure
• Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
• Pascal’s Principle
• Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
• Archimedes’ Principle
• Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
• Pressures in the Body
• 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
• Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
• Bernoulli’s Equation
• The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
• Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
• The Onset of Turbulence
• Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
• Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
• 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
• Temperature
• Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
• The Ideal Gas Law
• Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
• Phase Changes
• Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
• 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
• Heat
• Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
• Phase Change and Latent Heat
• Heat Transfer Methods
• Conduction
• Convection
• Radiation
• 15 Thermodynamics
• The First Law of Thermodynamics
• The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
• Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
• Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
• Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
• Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
• Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
• 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
• Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
• Period and Frequency in Oscillations
• Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
• The Simple Pendulum
• Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
• Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
• Damped Harmonic Motion
• Forced Oscillations and Resonance
• Waves
• Superposition and Interference
• Energy in Waves: Intensity
• 17 Physics of Hearing
• Sound
• Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
• Sound Intensity and Sound Level
• Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
• Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
• Hearing
• Ultrasound
• 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
• Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
• Conductors and Insulators
• Coulomb’s Law
• Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
• Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
• Electric Forces in Biology
• Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
• Applications of Electrostatics
• 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
• Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
• Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
• Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
• Equipotential Lines
• Capacitors and Dielectrics
• Capacitors in Series and Parallel
• Energy Stored in Capacitors
• 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm’s Law
• Current
• Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
• Resistance and Resistivity
• Electric Power and Energy
• Alternating Current versus Direct Current
• Electric Hazards and the Human Body
• Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
• 21 Circuits and DC Instruments
• Resistors in Series and Parallel
• Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
• Kirchhoff’s Rules
• DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
• Null Measurements
• DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
• 22 Magnetism
• Magnets
• Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
• Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
• Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
• Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
• The Hall Effect
• Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
• Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
• Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
• Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
• More Applications of Magnetism
• 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
• Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
• Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
• Motional Emf
• Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
• Electric Generators
• Back Emf
• Transformers
• Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
• Inductance
• RL Circuits
• Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
• RLC Series AC Circuits
• 24 Electromagnetic Waves
• Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
• Production of Electromagnetic Waves
• The Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
• 25 Geometric Optics
• The Ray Aspect of Light
• The Law of Reflection
• The Law of Refraction
• Total Internal Reflection
• Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
• Image Formation by Lenses
• Image Formation by Mirrors
• 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
• Physics of the Eye
• Vision Correction
• Color and Color Vision
• Microscopes
• Telescopes
• Aberrations
• 27 Wave Optics
• The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
• Huygens’s Principle: Diffraction
• Young’s Double Slit Experiment
• Multiple Slit Diffraction
• Single Slit Diffraction
• Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
• Thin Film Interference
• Polarization
• *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
• 28 Special Relativity
• Einstein’s Postulates
• Simultaneity and Time Dilation
• Length Contraction
• Relativistic Addition of Velocities
• Relativistic Momentum
• Relativistic Energy
• 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
• Quantization of Energy
• The Photoelectric Effect
• Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Photon Momentum
• The Particle-Wave Duality
• The Wave Nature of Matter
• Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
• The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
• 30 Atomic Physics
• Discovery of the Atom
• Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
• Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
• X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
• Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
• The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
• Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
• Quantum Numbers and Rules
• The Pauli Exclusion Principle
• 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
• Nuclear Radioactivity
• Radiation Detection and Detectors
• Substructure of the Nucleus
• Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
• Half-Life and Activity
• Binding Energy
• Tunneling
• 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
• Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
• Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
• Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
• Food Irradiation
• Fusion
• Fission
• Nuclear Weapons
• 33 Particle Physics
• The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
• The Four Basic Forces
• Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
• Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
• Quarks: Is That All There Is?
• GUTs: The Unification of Forces
• 34 Frontiers of Physics
• Cosmology and Particle Physics
• General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
• Superstrings
• Dark Matter and Closure
• Complexity and Chaos
• High-Temperature Superconductors
• Some Questions We Know to Ask

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