# Alignment: Pakistan • Mathematics 8

• Chapter 1 Operations on Sets
• 1.1 Sets
• 1.2 Operations on Sets
• 1.3 Venn Diagram
• Chapter 2 Real Numbers
• 2.1 Irrational Numbers
• 2.2 Squares
• 2.3 Square Root
• 2.4 Cubes and Cube Roots
• Chapter 3 Number Systems
• 3.1 Number Systems
• 3.2 Conversions
• Chapter 4 Financial Arithmetic
• 4.1 Compound Proportion
• 4.2 Banking
• 4.3 Percentage
• 4.4 Insurance
• 4.5 Income Tax
• Chapter 5 Polynomials
• 5.1 Algebraic Expressions
• 5.2 Polynomial
• 5.3 Operations on Polynomials
• Chapter 6 Factorization, Simultaneous Equations
• 6.1 Basic Algebraic Formula
• 6.2 Factorization
• 6.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Expression
• 6.4 Simultaneous Linear Equations
• 6.5 Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations
• 6.6 Elimination
• Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Geometry
• 7.1 Parallel Lines
• 7.2 Polygons
• 7.3 Circle
• Chapter 8 Practical Geometry
• 8.1 Define and Depict Two Converging (Non-Parallel) Lines and Find the Angle between Them without Producing the Lines
• 8.2 Construction of a Right Angled Triangle
• Chapter 9 Areas and Volumes
• 9.1 Pythagoras Theorem
• 9.2 Hero’s Formula
• 9.3 Surface Area and Volume of Sphere
• Chapter 10 Information Handling
• 10.1 Frequency and Frequency Distribution
• 10.2 Measures of Central Tendency

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