# Alignment: Physics • James S. Walker • Fifth Edition

Use Nagwa in conjunction with your preferred textbook. The recommended lessons from Nagwa for each section of this textbook are provided below. This alignment is not affiliated with, sponsored by, or endorsed by the publisher of the referenced textbook. Nagwa is a registered trademark of Nagwa Limited. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

• Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics
• 1-1 Physics and the Laws of Nature
• 1-2 Units of Length, Mass, and Time
• 1-3 Dimensional Analysis
• 1-4 Significant Figures, Scientific Notation, and Round-Off Error
• 1-5 Converting Units
• 1-6 Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
• 1-7 Scalars and Vectors
• 1-8 Problem Solving in Physics
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Part I Mechanics
• Chapter 2 One-Dimensional Kinematics
• 2-1 Position, Distance, and Displacement
• 2-2 Average Speed and Velocity
• 2-3 Instantaneous Velocity
• 2-4 Acceleration
• 2-5 Motion with Constant Acceleration
• 2-6 Applications of the Equations of Motion
• 2-7 Freely Falling Objects
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 3 Vectors in Physics
• 3-1 Scalars versus Vectors
• 3-2 The Components of a Vector
• 3-3 Adding and Subtracting Vectors
• 3-4 Unit Vectors
• 3-5 Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
• 3-6 Relative Motion
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 4 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
• 4-1 Motion in Two Dimensions
• 4-2 Projectile Motion: Basic Equations
• 4-3 Zero Launch Angle
• 4-4 General Launch Angle
• 4-5 Projectile Motion: Key Characteristics
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 5 Newton’s Laws of Motion
• 5-1 Force and Mass
• 5-2 Newton’s First Law of Motion
• 5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
• 5-4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
• 5-5 The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions
• 5-6 Weight
• 5-7 Normal Forces
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 6 Applications of Newton’s Laws
• 6-1 Frictional Forces
• 6-2 Strings and Springs
• 6-3 Translational Equilibrium
• 6-4 Connected Objects
• 6-5 Circular Motion
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
• 7-1 Work Done by a Constant Force
• 7-2 Kinetic Energy and the Work—Energy Theorem
• 7-3 Work Done by a Variable Force
• 7-4 Power
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
• 8-1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
• 8-2 Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces
• 8-3 Conservation of Mechanical Energy
• 8-4 Work Done by Nonconservative Forces
• 8-5 Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
• 9-1 Linear Momentum
• 9-2 Momentum and Newton’s Second Law
• 9-3 Impulse
• 9-4 Conservation of Linear Momentum
• 9-5 Inelastic Collisions
• 9-6 Elastic Collisions
• 9-7 Center of Mass
• 9-8 Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 10 Rotational Kinematics and Energy
• 10-1 Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
• 10-2 Rotational Kinematics
• 10-3 Connections between Linear and Rotational Quantities
• 10-4 Rolling Motion
• 10-5 Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia
• 10-6 Conservation of Energy
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 11 Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium
• 11-1 Torque
• 11-2 Torque and Angular Acceleration
• 11-3 Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium
• 11-4 Center of Mass and Balance
• 11-5 Dynamic Applications of Torque
• 11-6 Angular Momentum
• 11-7 Conservation of Angular Momentum
• 11-8 Rotational Work and Power
• 11-9 The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 12 Gravity
• 12-1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
• 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies
• 12-3 Kepler’s Laws of Orbital Motion
• 12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy
• 12-5 Energy Conservation
• 12-6 Tides
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 13 Oscillations about Equilibrium
• 13-1 Periodic Motion
• 13-2 Simple Harmonic Motion
• 13-3 Connections between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
• 13-4 The Period of a Mass on a Spring
• 13-5 Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion
• 13-6 The Pendulum
• 13-7 Damped Oscillations
• 13-8 Driven Oscillations and Resonance
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 14 Waves and Sound
• 14-1 Types of Waves
• 14-2 Waves on a String
• 14-3 Harmonic Wave Functions
• 14-4 Sound Waves
• 14-5 Sound Intensity
• 14-6 The Doppler Effect
• 14-7 Superposition and Interference
• 14-8 Standing Waves
• 14-9 Beats
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 15 Fluids
• 15-1 Density
• 15-2 Pressure
• 15-3 Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth
• 15-4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
• 15-5 Applications of Archimedes’ Principle
• 15-6 Fluid Flow and Continuity
• 15-7 Bernoulli’s Equation
• 15-8 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
• 15-9 Viscosity and Surface Tension
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Part II Thermal Physics
• Chapter 16 Temperature and Heat
• 16-1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
• 16-2 Temperature Scales
• 16-3 Thermal Expansion
• 16-4 Heat and Mechanical Work
• 16-5 Specific Heats
• 16-6 Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 17 Phases and Phase Changes
• 17-1 Ideal Gases
• 17-2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
• 17-3 Solids and Elastic Deformation
• 17-4 Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation
• 17-5 Latent Heats
• 17-6 Phase Changes and Energy Conservation
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 18 The Laws of Thermodynamics
• 18-1 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
• 18-2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
• 18-3 Thermal Processes
• 18-4 Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume
• 18-5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
• 18-6 Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle
• 18-7 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
• 18-8 Entropy
• 18-9 Order, Disorder, and Entropy
• 18-10 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Part III Electromagnetism
• Chapter 19 Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields
• 19-1 Electric Charge
• 19-2 Insulators and Conductors
• 19-3 Coulomb’s Law
• 19-4 The Electric Field
• 19-5 Electric Field Lines
• 19-6 Shielding and Charging by Induction
• 19-7 Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 20 Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy
• 20-1 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential
• 20-2 Energy Conservation
• 20-3 The Electric Potential of Point Charges
• 20-4 Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field
• 20-5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
• 20-6 Electrical Energy Storage
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 21 Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits
• 21-1 Electric Current
• 21-2 Resistance and Ohm’s Law
• 21-3 Energy and Power in Electric Circuits
• 21-4 Resistors in Series and Parallel
• 21-5 Kirchhoff’s Rules
• 21-6 Circuits Containing Capacitors
• 21-7 𝑅𝐶 Circuits
• 21-8 Ammeters and Voltmeters
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 22 Magnetism
• 22-1 The Magnetic Field
• 22-2 The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges
• 22-3 The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field
• 22-4 The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire
• 22-5 Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque
• 22-6 Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampère’s Law
• 22-7 Current Loops and Solenoids
• 22-8 Magnetism in Matter
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 23 Magnetic Flux and Faraday’s Law of Induction
• 23-1 Induced Electromotive Force
• 23-2 Magnetic Flux
• 23-3 Faraday’s Law of Induction
• 23-4 Lenz’s Law
• 23-5 Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy
• 23-6 Generators and Motors
• 23-7 Inductance
• 23-8 𝑅𝐿 Circuits
• 23-9 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
• 23-10 Transformers
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 24 Alternating-Current Circuits
• 24-1 Alternating Voltages and Currents
• 24-2 Capacitors in ac Circuits
• 24-3 𝑅𝐶 Circuits
• 24-4 Inductors in ac Circuits
• 24-5 𝑅𝐿𝐶 Circuits
• 24-6 Resonance in Electric Circuits
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Part IV Light and Optics
• Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Waves
• 25-1 The Production of Electromagnetic Waves
• 25-2 The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
• 25-3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
• 25-4 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves
• 25-5 Polarization
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics
• 26-1 The Reflection of Light
• 26-2 Forming Images with a Plane Mirror
• 26-3 Spherical Mirrors
• 26-4 Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation
• 26-5 The Refraction of Light
• 26-6 Ray Tracing for Lenses
• 26-7 The Thin-Lens Equation
• 26-8 Dispersion and the Rainbow
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 27 Optical Instruments
• 27-1 The Human Eye and the Camera
• 27-2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics
• 27-3 The Magnifying Glass
• 27-4 The Compound Microscope
• 27-5 Telescopes
• 27-6 Lens Aberrations
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 28 Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction
• 28-1 Superposition and Interference
• 28-2 Young’s Two-Slit Experiment
• 28-3 Interference in Reflected Waves
• 28-4 Diffraction
• 28-5 Resolution
• 28-6 Diffraction Gratings
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Part V Modern Physics
• Chapter 29 Relativity
• 29-1 The Postulates of Special Relativity
• 29-2 The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation
• 29-3 The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction
• 29-4 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities
• 29-5 Relativistic Momentum
• 29-6 Relativistic Energy and 𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐²
• 29-7 The Relativistic Universe
• 29-8 General Relativity
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 30 Quantum Physics
• 30-1 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis of Quantized Energy
• 30-2 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect
• 30-3 The Mass and Momentum of a Photon
• 30-4 Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect
• 30-5 The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave—Particle Duality
• 30-6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
• 30-7 Quantum Tunneling
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 31 Atomic Physics
• 31-1 Early Models of the Atom
• 31-2 The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen
• 31-3 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
• 31-4 de Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model
• 31-5 The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom
• 31-6 Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Chapter 32 Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation
• 32-1 The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei
• 32-3 Half-Life and Radioactive Dating
• 32-4 Nuclear Binding Energy
• 32-5 Nuclear Fission
• 32-6 Nuclear Fusion
• 32-7 Practical Applications of Nuclear Physics
• 32-8 Elementary Particles
• 32-9 Unified Forces and Cosmology
• Chapter Summary
• Conceptual Questions
• Problems and Conceptual Exercises
• Appendices
• Appendix A Basic Mathematical Tools
• Appendix B Typical Values
• Appendix C Planetary Data
• Appendix D Elements of Electrical Circuits
• Appendix E Periodic Table of the Elements
• Appendix F Properties of Selected Isotopes